Memory Strength and Criterion Shift in the False Memory Paradigm: A Learning Case

DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23033   PDF   HTML     5,195 Downloads   9,544 Views   Citations


The attempt has been made to investigate the criterion shift hypothesis once again by re-evaluating the confi-dence measurement, which will possibly clarify the role that criterion shifts play in the false memory phenome-non (recollection of an event, or the details of an event, that did not occur). Literature review shows that this hypothesis still needs research upon the same topic. The study was experimental in which students of Hamdard University were selected as subjects - 40 students from BBA and MBA programs. Both male/female and left/right handed subjects participated. All the subjects were not native English speakers. The experiment was conducted using a computer program to collect the data. The experiment had two parts, firstly a study/recall phase and secondly a test/recognition phase. The scale we introduced to allow participants to assess their own certainty about the classification of recognition items is more detailed than that used in the Roediger and McDermott study. Our hypothesis was that a shift in decision criterion would become evident by means of a lower certainty measure for lure words as compared to target words from the lists. This difference was found in our data. The mean certainty measure we found for the critical lures is significantly lower than the mean cer-tainty for the targets.

Share and Cite:

Naved, S. , Ali, A. & Qureshi, K. (2011). Memory Strength and Criterion Shift in the False Memory Paradigm: A Learning Case. Psychology, 2, 216-219. doi: 10.4236/psych.2011.23033.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Deese, J. 1995. Influence of Inter-Item Associative Strength upon Immediate Free Recall. Psychological Reports, 5: 305-312.
[2] Miller, M. B., and G.L. Wolford. 1999. Theoretical Commentary: The Role of Criterion Shift in False Memory. Psychological Review, 106: 398-405.
[3] McDermott, K.B., and H.L. Roediger. 1998. Attempting to avoid illusory memories: Robust false recognition of associates persists under conditions of explicit warnings and immediate testing. Journal of Memory and Language, 39: 508-520. Reprint.
[4] Roediger, H. L., and K.B McDermott. 1995. Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory and Cognition, 21: 803-814.
[5] Roediger, H. L., and K.B. McDermott. 1999. False Alarms and False Memories. Psychological Review, 106(2): 406-410.
[6] Russell, (1954), ed. by Leo Postman. 1970. Norms of word association. New York: Academic Press.
[7] Smith, R. E., and R.R. Hunt. 1999. Presentation modality affects false memory. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 5(4): 710-715.
[8] Rhodes, M. G., and J.S. Anastasi. 2000. The Effects of Levels of Processing Manipulation on False Recall. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 7(1): 158-162.
[9] Wixted, John T., and V. Stretch. 2000. The case against a criterion shift account of false memory. Psychological Review, 107: 368-376.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.