Share This Article:

Homogeneous Distribution of Escherichia coli Measured within the Vertical Water Column of Small, Freshwater Streams

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1029KB) PP. 410-421
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.75033    3,971 Downloads   4,533 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Sampling for coliform bacterial indicators such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) provides a universally accepted gauge of the microbiologic quality of fresh surface waters worldwide. Protocols for the capture, preservation, and analysis of indicator bacteria collected from moving waters (e.g., rivers, streams, canals, etc.) parallel those for collecting bacteria from standing waters (e.g., ponds, lakes, and impoundments). Strict depth- and width-integrated rules established for testing moving waters are likely a result of the historical precedence of our knowledge of bacterial stratification in standing waters. Sampling protocols for indicator bacteria in freshwater streams recommend capture and retrieval of samples from the mid-water column directed into the current and within the deepest portion of the channel to prevent collection of either benthic particles or surface films. Chi-square analyses of multiple stratified samples captured on the same date and time reveal that variability in sampling position at specified depths within the main stream column or within randomly chosen locations within the main stream channel has no effect (p ≥ 0.25) upon such indicator bacteria numbers. Additionally, these data are the first to show that concentrations of the common bacterial indicator, E. coli, are homogeneously distributed throughout both lateral area and vertical water column within/near a single sampling location of a moving water body up to 245 cubic feet per second (cfs) discharge. Moreover, one data point (bacterial sample) appears to represent the overall bacterial concentration of a small freshwater stream obtained from any single sampling location within/near the main channel for a given date and time. These findings suggest some latitude in sampling strategies for assessing small freshwater streams for indicator bacteria such as E. coli for workers in both environmental and public health fields.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Buckalew, D. , Tuono, A. , Simmons, A. , Lankford, T. and Smith, D. (2015) Homogeneous Distribution of Escherichia coli Measured within the Vertical Water Column of Small, Freshwater Streams. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 7, 410-421. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.75033.

References

[1] North, R.L., Khan, N.H., Ahsan, M., Prestie, C., Korber, D.R., Lawrence, J.R. and Hudson, J.J. (2014) Relation between Water Quality Parameters and Bacterial Indicators in a Large Prairie Reservoir: Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 60, 243-249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjm-2013-0694
[2] Hong, H., Qiu, J. and Liang, Y. (2010) Environmental Factors Influencing the Distribution of Total and Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Six Water Storage Reservoirs in the Pearl River Delta Region, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 22, 663-668.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(09)60160-1
[3] Berdjeb, L., Ghiglione, J. and Jacquet, S. (2011) Bottom-Up versus Top-Down Control of Hypo- and Epilimnion Free-Living Bacterial Community Structures in Two Neighboring Freshwater Lakes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77, 3591-3599.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02739-10
[4] Newton, R.J, Jones, S.E., Eiler, A., McMahon, K.D. and Bertilsson, S. (2011) A Guide to the Natural History of Freshwater Lake Bacteria. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 75, 14-49.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MMBR.00028-10
[5] Mohandass, C., Bharathi, P. and Loka, A. (2003) Representation, Dispersion, and Variation of Bacterial Indicators in the Coastal Waters of Nagore (East Coast of India). Water Environment Research, 75, 66-72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/106143003X140845
[6] An, Y.J., Kampbell, D.H. and Breidenbach, G.P. (2002) Escherichia coli and Total Coliforms in Water and Sediments at Lake Marinas. Environmental Pollution, 120, 771-778.
[7] Sahl, J.W., Schmidt, R., Swanner, E.D., Mandernack, K.W., Templeton, A.S., Kieft, T.L., Smith, R.L., Sanford, W.E., Callaghan, R.L., Mitton, J.B. and Spear, J.R.. (2008) Subsurface Microbial Diversity in Deep-Granitic-Fracture Water in Colorado. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74, 143-152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01133-07
[8] Curtis, T.P., Mara, D.D. and Silva, S.A. (1992) Influence of pH, Oxygen, and Humic Substances on Ability of Sunlight to Damage Fecal Coliforms in Waste Stabilization Pond Water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 58, 1335-1343.
[9] Jenkins, M., Fisher, D.S., Endale, D.M. and Adams, P. (2011) Comparative Die-off of Escherichia coli 0157: H7 and Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Pond Water. Environmental Science and Technology, 45, 1853-1858.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es1032019
[10] Khaengraeng, R. and Reed, R.H. (2005) Oxygen and Photoinactivation of Escherichia coli in UVA and Sunlight. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 99, 39-50.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02606.x
[11] Sarkar, B.L., Nair, G.B., Banerjee, A.K. and Pal, S.C. (1985) Seasonal Distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Freshwater Environs and in Association with Freshwater Fishes in Calcutta. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 49, 132-136.
[12] Ishii, S., Yan, T., Shively, D.A., Byappanahalli, M.N., Whitman, R.L. and Sadowsky, M.J. (2006) Cladophora (Chlorophyta) spp. Harbor Human Bacterial Pathogens in Nearshore Water of Lake Michigan. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72, 4545-4553.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00131-06
[13] Zeng, J., Bian, Y., Xing, P. and Wu, Q.L. (2012) Macrophyte Species Drive the Variation of Bacterioplankton Community Composition in a Shallow Freshwater Lake. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78, 177-184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.05117-11
[14] Staley, Z.R., Chase, E., Mitraki, C., Crisman, T.L. and Harwood, V.J. (2013) Microbial Water Quality in Freshwater Lakes with Different Land Use. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 115, 1240-1250.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jam.12312
[15] Staley, C., Reckhow, K.H., Lukasik, J. and Harwood, V.J. (2012) Assessment of Sources of Human Pathogens and Fecal Contamination in a Florida Freshwater Lake. Water Research, 46, 5799-5812.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2012.08.012
[16] Nishimura, Y., Kim, C. and Nagata, T. (2005) Vertical and Seasonal Variations of Bacterioplankton Subgroups with Different Nucleic Acid Contents: Possible Regulation by Phosphorus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71, 5828-5836.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.71.10.5828-5836.2005
[17] Davis, K., Anderson, M.A. and Yates, M.V. (2005) Distribution of Indicator Bacteria in Canyon Lake, California. Water Research, 39, 1277-1288.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2005.01.011
[18] Colombet, J., Sime-Ngando, T., Cauchie, H.M., Fonty, G., Hoffmann, L. and Demeure, G. (2006) Depth-Related Gradients of Viral Activity in Lake Pavin. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72, 4440-4445.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00021-06
[19] Wommack, K.E., Ravel, J., Hill, R.T., Chun, J. and Colwell, R.R. (1999) Population Dynamics of Chesapeake Bay Virioplankton: Total Community Analysis by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65, 231-240.
[20] Quilliam, R.S., Clements, K., Duce, C., Cottrill, S.B., Malham, S.K. and Jones, D.L. (2011) Spatial Variation of Waterborne Escherichia coli—Implications for Routine Water Quality Monitoring. Journal of Water and Health, 9, 734-737.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2011.057
[21] Edwards, T.K. and Glysson, G.D. (1988) Field Methods for Measurement of Fluvial Sediment. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-531.
[22] Ward, J.R. and Harr, C.A., Eds. (1990) Methods for Collection and Processing of Surface-Water and Bed-Material Samples for Physical and Chemical Analyses. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-140.
[23] Myers, D.N., Stoeckel, D.M., Bushon, R.N., Francy, D.S. and Brady, A.M.G. (2014) Fecal Indicator Bacteria (Ver. 2.1): US Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9, Chapter A7, Section 7.1.
http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/
[24] Rodina, A.G. (1972) Methods in Aquatic Microbiology. University Park Press, Baltimore.
[25] Vereen, E., Lowrance, R.R., Cole, D.J. and Lipp, E.K. (2007) Distribution and Ecology of Campylobacters in Coastal Plain Streams (Georgia, United States of America). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73, 1395-1403.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01621-06
[26] American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA) and Water Environment Federation (WEF) (1998) Microbiological Examination Section 9223 Enzyme Substrate Coliform Testing. In: Clesceri, L.S., Greenberg, A.E. and Eaton, A.D., Eds., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington DC, 9/132-9/136.
[27] Leclerc, H., Mossel, D.A.A., Edberg, S.C. and Struijk, C.B. (2001) Advances in the Bacteriology of the Coliform Group: Their Suitability as Markers of Microbial Water Safety. Annual Review of Microbiology, 55, 201-234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.micro.55.1.201
[28] Niemala, S., Lee, J. and Fricker, C. (2003) A Comparison of the International Standards Organization Reference Method for the Detection of Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Water with a Defined Substrate Procedure. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 95, 1285-1292.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2003.02099.x
[29] Buckalew, D.W., Hartman, L.J., Grimsley, G.A., Martin, A.E. and Register, K.M. (2006) A Long-Term Study Comparing Membrane Filtration with Colilert Defined Substrates in Detecting Fecal Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Natural Waters. Journal of Environmental Management, 80, 191-197.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2005.08.024
[30] Sokal, R.R. and Rohlf, F.J. (1995) Biometry: The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research. 3rd Edition, W.H. Freeman and Co., New York.
[31] Conover, W.J. (1980) Practical Nonparametric Statistics. 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
[32] Jones, J. (2012) Standard Operating Procedures for Surface Water Quality Sampling. Pub. No. TB12-02, Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, Phoenix.
[33] Bordner, R.H. (1981) Microbiology: Methodology and Quality Assurance. Journal—Water Pollution Control Federation, 53, 1098-1107.
[34] Jamieson, R.C., Joy, D.M., Lee, H., Kostaschuk, R. and Gordon, R.J. (2005) Re-Suspension of Sediment-Associated Escherichia coli in a Natural Stream. Journal of Environmental Quality, 34, 581-589.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2005.0581
[35] Byappanahalli, M.N., Whitman, R.L., Shively, D.A., Sadowsky, M.J. and Ishii, S. (2006) Population Structure, Persistence, and Seasonality of Autochthonous Escherichia coli in Temperate, Coastal Forest Soil from a Great Lakes Watershed. Environmental Microbiology, 8, 504-513.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2005.00916.x
[36] Sherer, B.M., Miner, J.R., Moore, J.A. and Buckhouse, J.C. (1992) Indicator Bacterial Survival in Stream Sediments. Journal of Environmental Quality, 21, 591-595.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq1992.00472425002100040011x
[37] Bunn, S.E., Davies, P.M. and Mosisch, T.D. (1999) Ecosystem Measures of River Health and Their Response to Riparian Catchment Degradation. Freshwater Biology, 41, 333-345.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2427.1999.00434.x
[38] Van Donsel, D.J., Geldreich, E.E. and Clarke, N.A. (1967) Seasonal Variations in Survival of Indicator Bacteria in Soil and Their Contribution to Storm-Water Pollution. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 15, 1362-1370.
[39] Hyland, J.L., Balthis, W.L., Engle, V.D., Long, E.R., Paul, J.F., Summers, J.K. and Van Dolah, R.F. (2003) Incidence of Stress in Benthic Communities along the US Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Coasts within Different Ranges of Sediment Contamination from Chemical Mixtures. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 81, 149-161.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021325007660
[40] Wilkes, G., Edge, T., Gannon, V., Jokinen, C., Lyautey, E., Medeiros, D. and Lapen, D.R. (2009) Seasonal Relationships among Indicator Bacteria, Pathogenic Bacteria, Cryptosporidium Oocysts, Giardia Cysts, and Hydrological Indices for Surface Waters Within an Agricultural Landscape. Water Research, 43, 2209-2223.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.01.033

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.