Trapa japonica Flerov Extract Attenuates Lipid Accumulation through Downregulation of Adipogenic Transcription Factors in 3T3-L1 Cells

DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2015.52004   PDF   HTML   XML   4,618 Downloads   5,153 Views   Citations


Obesity is a major human health problem associated with various diseases, including cardiac injury and type 2 diabetes. Trapa japonica Flerov (TJF) has been used in traditional oriental medicine to treat diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of and the mechanism underlying the effect of TJF extract on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. The effects of TJF extract on cell viability were analyzed using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the anti-adipogenic effect was measured by oil red O staining. The expression of peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP)α, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), adiponectin, and fatty acid binding protein (FABP)4 involved in adipogenesis was determined by western blot analysis. TJF extract effectively inhibited lipid accumulation and the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα in 3T3-L1 cells. TJF also increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC, and decreased the expression of adiponectin and FABP4. These results indicate that TJF extract exerts its anti-obesity effect through the downregulation of adipogenic transcription factors and adipogenic marker genes.

Share and Cite:

Kim, M. , Im, K. and Yoon, K. (2015) Trapa japonica Flerov Extract Attenuates Lipid Accumulation through Downregulation of Adipogenic Transcription Factors in 3T3-L1 Cells. American Journal of Molecular Biology, 5, 32-41. doi: 10.4236/ajmb.2015.52004.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Grundy, S.M. (1998) Multifactorial Causation of Obesity: Implication for Prevention. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67, 563S-572S.
[2] Kopelman, P.G. (2000) Obesity as Medical Problem. Nature, 404, 635-643.
[3] World Health Organization; International Association for the Study of Obesity; International Obesity Task Force (2000) The Asia-Pacific Perspective: Redefining Obesity and Its Treatment. Health Communication Australia Pty Ltd., Sydney, 15-21.
[4] Ministry of Health and Welfare (2012) Korea Health Statistics 2012. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Seoul.
[5] Yang, J.Y., Della-Fera, M.A., Rayalam, S., Ambati, S., Hartzell, D.L., Park, H.J. and Baile, C.A. (2008) Enhanced Inhibition of Adipogenesis and Induction of Apoptosis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes with Combination of Resveratrol and Quercetin. Life Sciences, 82, 1032-1039.
[6] Roncari, D.A., Lau, D.C. and Kindler, S. (1981) Exaggerated Replica-tion in Culture of Adipocyte Precursors from Massively Obese Persons. Metabolism, 30, 425-427.
[7] Rosen, E.D., Walkey, C.J. Puiqserver, P. and Spieqelman, B.M. (2000) Transcriptional Regulation of Adipogenesis. Genes & Development, 14, 1293-1307.
[8] Moller, D.E. and Greene, D.A. (2001) Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Gamma Agonists for Diabetes. Advances in Protein Chemistry, 56, 182-212.
[9] Green, H. and Kehinde, O. (1974) An Established Pre-Adipose Cell Line and Its Differentiation in Culture. Cell, 1, 113-116.
[10] Student, A.K., Hsu, R.Y. and Lane, M.D. (1980) Induction of Fatty Acid Synthetase Synthesis in Differentiating 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 255, 4745-4750.
[11] Bernlohr, D.A., Bolanowski, M.A., Kelly Jr., T.J. and Lane, M.D. (1985) Evidence for an Increase in Transcription of Specific mRNAs during Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 260, 5563-5567.
[12] Ntambi, J.M. and Kim, Y.C. (2000) Adipocyte Differentiation and Gene Expression. Journal of Nutrition, 130, 3122S-3126S.
[13] Distel, R.J., Robinson, G.S. and Spiegelman, B.M. (1992) Fatty Acid Regulation of Gene Expression. Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional Mechanisms. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 267, 5937-5941.
[14] Farmer, S.R. (2005) Regulation of PPARγ Activity during Adipogenesis. International Journal of Obesity, 29, S13-S16.
[15] Erbayraktar, Z., Yilmaz, O., Artmann, A.T., Cehreli, R. and Coker, C. (2007) Effects of Selenium Supplementation on Antioxidant Defense and Glucose Homeostasis in Experimental Diabetes Mellitus. Biological Trace Element Research, 118, 217-226.
[16] Hardie, D.G. (2007) AMP-Activated/SNF1 Protein Kinase: Conserved Guardians of Cellular Energy. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 8, 774-785.
[17] Sim, A.T. and Hardie, D.G. (1998) The Low Activity of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase in Basal and Glucagon-Stimulated Hepatocytes Is Due to Phosphorylation by the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Not Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase. FEBS Letters, 233, 294-298.
[18] Suriyagoda, L.D.B., Arima, S. and Suzuki, A. (2006) Canopy and Fruit Characters with Morphological Relationships of European and Asian Water Chestnuts (Trapa spp.). Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University, 92, 45-51.
[19] Bargale, M., Samwarkar, N.J. and Sharma, Y.K. (1987) Mineralogical Composition of Water Chestnut as Compared to Sweet Potato. Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, 24, 78-82.
[20] Yasuda, M., Yasutake, K., Hino, M., Ohwatari, H., Ohmagari, N., Takedomi, K., Tanaka, T. and Nonaka, G. (2014) Inhibitory Effects of Polyphenols from Water Chestnut (Trapa japonica) Husk on Glycolytic Enzymes and Postprandial Blood Glucose Elevation in Mice. Food Chemistry, 165, 42-49.
[21] Chung, Y.H., Choi, H.K., Suh, K.H. and Shin, H.C. (1987) Numerical Taxonomic Study of the Nuts of Genus Trapa in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy, 17, 45-54.
[22] Kang, M.J., Lee, S.K., Song, J.H., Kim, M.E., Kim, M.J., Jang, J.S., Lee, J.H. and Kim, J.I. (2009) Water Chestnut (Trapa japonica Flerov.) Exerts Inhibitory Effect on Postprandial Glycemic Response in Rats and Free Radical Scavenging Activity in Vitro. Food Science and Biotechnology, 18, 808-812.
[23] Kim, Y.S., Hwang, J.W., Han, Y.K., Kwon, H.J., Hong, H., Kim, E.H., Moon, S.H., Jeon, B.T. and Park, P.J. (2014) Antioxidant Activity and Protective Effects of Trapa japonica Pericarp Extracts against Tert-Butylhydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Damage in Chang Cells. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 64, 49-56.
[24] Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (2006) Anti-Diabetic and Anti-Cancer Agents from Trapa japonica Flerov. GOVP1200711645.
[25] Meda, A., Lamien, C.E., Romito, M., Millogo, J. and Nacoulma, O.G. (2005) Determination of the Total Phenolic, Flavonoid and Proline Contents in Burkina Fasan Honey, as Well as Their Radical Scavenging Activity. Food Chemistry, 91, 571-577.
[26] Fugita, Y., Uehara, I., Morimoto, Y., Nakashima, M., Hatano, T. and Okuda, T. (1988) Studies on Inhibition Mechanism of Autoxidation by Tannins and Flavonoids. II. Inhibition Mechanism of Caffeetannins Isolated from Leaves of Artemisia Species on Lipoxygenase Dependent Lipid Peroxidation. Yakugaku Zasshi, 108, 129-135.
[27] Noro, T., Oda, Y., Miyase, T., Ueno, A. and Fukushima, S. (1983) Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidase from the Flowers and Buds of Daphne Genkwa. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 31, 3984-3987.
[28] Habinowski, S.A. and Witters, L.A. (2001) The Effects of AICAR on Adipocyte Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 286, 852-856.
[29] Spiegelman, B.M. and Green, H. (1980) Control of Specific Protein Biosynthesis during the Adipose Conversion of 3T3-L1 Cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 255, 8811-8818.
[30] Hwang, J.T., Park, I.J., Shin, J.I., Lee, Y.K., Baik, H.W., Ha, J. and Park, O.J. (2005) Genistein EGCG, and Capsaicin Inhibit Adipocyte Differentiation Process via Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 338, 694-699.
[31] Kudo, M., Sugawara, A., Uruno, A., Takeuchi, K. and Ito, S. (2004) Transcription Suppression of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor γ2 Gene Expression by Tumor Necrosis Factor α via an Inhibition of CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein δ during the Early Stage of Adipocyte Differentiation. Endocrinology, 145, 4948-4956.
[32] Fu, Y., Luo, N., Klein, R.L. and Garvey, W.T. (2005) Adiponectin Promotes Adipocyte Differentiation, Insulin Sensitivity, and Lipid Accumulation. Journal of Lipid Research, 46, 1369-1379.
[33] Picard, F., Kurtev, M., Chung, N., Topark-Ngarm, A., Senawong, T., Machado De Oliveira, R., Leid, M., McBurney, M.W. and Guarente, L. (2004) Sirt1 Promotes Fat Mobilization in White Adipocytes by Repressing PPAR-Gamma. Nature, 429, 771-776.
[34] Zhou, Y., Wang, D., Zhu, Q., Gao, X., Yang, S., Xu, A. and Wu, D. (2009) Inhibitory Effects of A-769662, a Novel Activator of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase, on 3T3-L1 Adipogenesis. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 32, 993-998.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.