Emotional Intelligence Is Synergy in Intelligence


Three emotional intelligence models are widely discussed in the literature: the ability model, trait model, and mixed model. This study introduces a model for understanding emotional intelligence: the synergy model. The emotional intelligence model presented in this study is simple and easy to understand. This study suggests that emotional intelligence is the synergy present in intelligence, where total intelligence is the sum of the intelligence quotient, emotional quotient, and unexplained quotient. The model shows three possible outcomes of emotional intelligence. It also suggests that the best way to understand and measure the impact of emotional intelligence is to listen, observe, and feel (LOF) it.

Share and Cite:

Ahmed, M. (2015). Emotional Intelligence Is Synergy in Intelligence. Psychology, 6, 447-455. doi: 10.4236/psych.2015.64042.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ahmed, M. R. (2010a). Emotional Intelligence Model for Managers. HRM Review, X, October, 34-37.
[2] Ahmed, M. R. (2010b). Emotional Intelligence Working Papers. Journal of Global Business and Management, II, 56.
[3] Ahmed, M. R. (2013). Emotional Intelligence Is Feeling, Observing, and Listening.
[4] Ahmed, M. R. (2014a). Use Emotional Intelligence to Succeed at the Workplace.
[5] Ahmed, M. R. (2014b). Emotional Intelligence Is Synergy in Intelligence.
[6] Bar-On, R. (1997). Emotional Quotient Inventory: Technical Manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.
[7] Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and Social Intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). In R. Bar-On, & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of Emotional Intelligence (pp. 363-387). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
[8] Dulewicz, F., & Higgs, M. (2000). Emotional Intelligence: A Review and Evaluation Study. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15, 341-372.
[9] Dulewicz, V., & Higgs, M. (1999). Can Emotional Intelligence Be Measured and Developed? Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 20, 242-252.
[10] Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More than IQ. New York: Bantam Books.
[11] Goleman, D. (1998a). What Makes a Leader? Harvard Business Review, 76, 93-102.
[12] Goleman, D. (1998b). Working with Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
[13] Mayer, J., & Salovey, P. (1990). Emotional Intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185-211.
[14] Mayer, J., & Salovey, P. (1997). What Is Emotional Intelligence? In P. Salovey, & D. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Educational Implications (pp. 3-24). New York: Basic Books.
[15] Miles, M. B., & Huberman, M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook (p. 18). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
[16] Stein, S. J., & Book, H. E. (2003). The EQ Edge: Emotional Intelligence and Your Success. Toronto: Stoddart Publishing.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.