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Cytotoxicity and Antimicrobial Property of the Leaf Extract of Euphorbia hirta (Tawa-Tawa)

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DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.33025    6,823 Downloads   8,927 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Tawa-tawa is usually abundant throughout the Philippines in waste places and open grasslands. The plant is an annual hairy herb, usually much-branched from the base. These branches are sim-ple or forked, ascending or spreading up to 40 centimeters long and often reddish or purplish. The leaves are opposite, distichous, oblong-elliptic to oblong-lanceolate, 1 to 2.5 centimeters long, toothed at the margin, and usually botched with purple in the middle. The plant deserves special attention because of its medicinal properties. Local tradition credits that this plant can help pa-tients stricken with dengue fever. While it does not fight with the virus, it promotes the develop-ment of blood platelets and softens the effect of the viruses which attack the blood. However the department of health advises the public not to be much dependent on the said herbal medicine, despite its proven efficacy. This study was conducted to elucidate the structure, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity of the extract. Twenty grams of air-dried tawa-tawa were percolated in ethyl acetate of 200 ml for one week, rota-evaporated and purified by wet column chromatography. The phyto-chemical tests revealed the presence of alkaloids and tannins. The structure of the constituents was partially elucidated by ultraviolet spectra and gas chromatography-mass spectra analysis. The λmax was at 420 nm with an absorbance of 1.233 and GC-mass spectra characterized 100 compounds. The antimicrobial analysis gave positive inhibition of P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, C. albicans and T. mentagrophytes with activity index of 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.2 respectively. The cytotoxicity test showed that a concentration of 36.7185 grams in water of 350 ml of the leaf extract was toxic based on the t-test of the live and dead cells by in-vitro analysis on the lymphocytes from normal blood cells.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Enerva, L. , Atienza, T. , Glifonea, Z. , Villamor, O. and Villa, N. (2015) Cytotoxicity and Antimicrobial Property of the Leaf Extract of Euphorbia hirta (Tawa-Tawa). Open Journal of Social Sciences, 3, 162-170. doi: 10.4236/jss.2015.33025.

References

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