Community-Based Cardiovascular Screening: Detection of Disease in Individuals with No Self-Reported Risk Factors


Introduction: Community-based cardiovascular screening presents an opportunity to detect the presence of cardiovascular disease in individuals who report having no traditional risk factors, and also to identify the presence of those risk factors in those who are unaware of their health status. Identification of both disease and risk factors (e.g. high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, etc.) creates an opportunity for treatment and management to reduce and prevent cardiovascular events from occurring. Methods: Over 230,000 screening records for individuals who had undergone carotid artery stenosis (CAD), abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), or peripheral artery disease (PAD) screening were reviewed. Participants were stratified based on self-reported risk factors as having no risk factors, one risk factor, or two or more risk factors. Self-reported risk factors were also compared with results of screening for blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid level status. Results: Abnormal findings of CAS, AAA, and PAD were all uncovered in individuals who self-reported as having no traditional risk factors. These abnormal findings included those defined as severe. The review of self-reported risk factors for accuracy demonstrated varying levels of inaccuracies in both under and over-reporting of risk factors. Conclusions: Community-based cardiovascular screening may result in the identification of cardiovascular disease in individuals with no established risk factors. While the underreporting of risk factors has also be demonstrated, it is clear that further research is warranted to better understand the presence of disease in the absence of risk factors.

Share and Cite:

Weisman, S. , Garbani, N. and Manganaro, A. (2015) Community-Based Cardiovascular Screening: Detection of Disease in Individuals with No Self-Reported Risk Factors. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5, 78-83. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.52009.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Smith Jr., S.C., Benjamin, E.J., Bonow, R.O., et al. (2011) AHA/ACCF Secondary Prevention and Risk Reduction Therapy for Patients with Coronary and Other Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease: 2011 Update: A Guideline from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation, 124, 2458-2473.
[2] Pearson, T.A., Blair, S.N., Daniels, S.R., et al. (2002) AHA Guidelines for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke: 2002 Update: Consensus Panel Guide to Comprehensive Risk Reduction for Adult Patients without Coronary or Other Atherosclerotic Vascular Diseases. American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. Circulation, 106, 388-391.
[3] Eckel, R.H., Jakicic, J.M., Ard, J.D., et al. (2013) AHA/ACC Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation, 129, S76-S99.
[4] Ko, D.T., Wijeysundera, H.C., Udell, J.A., Vaccarino, V., Austin, P.C., Guo, H., Velianou, J.L., Lau, K. and Tu, J.V. (2014) Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and the Presence of Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease in Men and Women. The Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 30, 820-826.
[5] Ostovan, M.A., Darvish, N. and Askarian, M. (2014) The Prevalence of Risk Factors of Coronary Artery Disease in the Patients Who Underwent Coronary Artery Bypass Graft, Shiraz, Iran: Suggesting a Model. International Journal of Cardiovascular Research, 8, 139-142.
[6] Weisman, S.M. and Manganaro, A.J. (2013) Community-Based Screening: Identifying Risk and Motivating Healthy Lifestyle Changes. Postgraduate Medicine, 125.
[7] St Sauver, J.L., Hagen, P.T., Cha, S.S., Bagniewski, S.M., Mandrekar, J.N., Curoe, A.M., Rodeheffer, R.J., Roger, V.L. and Jacobsen, S.J. (2005) Agreement between Patient Reports of Cardiovascular Disease and Patient Medical Records. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 80, 203-210.
[8] Nicolaides, A. (2010) Screening for Cardiovascular Risk. Bryce Jordan Center, 17, 105-107.
[9] LeFevre, M.L. (2014) Screening for Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 161, 336-346.
[10] Smith, B., Chu1, L.K., Smith, T.C., et al. (2008) Challenges of Self-Reported Medical Conditions and Electronic Medical Records among Members of a Large Military Cohort. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 8, 37.
[11] Klungel, O.H., de Boer, A., Paes, A.H., Seidell, J.C. and Bakker, A. (1999) Cardiovascular Diseases and Risk Factors in a Population-Based Study in the Netherlands: Agreement between Questionnaire Information and Medical Records. Netherlands Journal of Medicine, 55, 177-183.
[12] Englert, H., Müller-Nordhorn, J., Seewald, S., Sonntag, F., Völler, H., Meyer-Sabellek, W., Wegscheider, K., Windler, E., Katus, H. and Willich, S.N. (2010) Is Patient Self-Report An Adequate Tool for Monitoring Cardiovascular Conditions in Patients with Hypercholesterolemia? Journal of public health (Oxford, England), 32, 387-394.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.