Diagnosis of Boron Deficiency in Green Dwarf Coconut Palm


The diagnosis of boron deficiency in coconut palms has been hampered by lack of information about its distribution in the plant. Two experiments were conducted, one in a greenhouse to induce boron deficiency in dwarf green coconut palms, and other in the field, in which the plants received doses of boric acid, B(OH)3. The objective was to verify symptoms of boron deficiency and boron content variation in canopy, leaves and folioles (or leaflets). Boron deficient plants led leaves and folioles to become deformed. The deficient and sufficient contents of boron varied significantly in the canopy, but did not vary in leaves. The boron content increased significantly from bottom to the apex of the folioles in both treatments. To survey the level of boron in the coconut palm, the ideal is, using samples taken from the youngest leaf, to calculate the relation between the boron content in the apex of the foliole and the content in the center or in the folioles bottom, with minimum values 2.2 or 2.7, respectively.

Share and Cite:

da Rocha Pinho, L. , Monnerat, P. , Pires, A. , Freitas, M. and Marciano, C. (2015) Diagnosis of Boron Deficiency in Green Dwarf Coconut Palm. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 164-174. doi: 10.4236/as.2015.61015.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ramos, M.J.M., Monnerat, P.H., Carvalho, A.J.C.de, Pinto, J.L.deA. and Silva, J.A.da (2009) Visual Symptons of Macronutrients and Boron Deficiency in “Imperial” Pineapple. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 31, 252-256.
[2] Freitas, M.S.M., Monnerat, P.H., Carvalho, A.J.C.de and Vasconcellos, M.A.daS. (2011) Deficiency Symptoms of Macronutrientes and Boron in Sweet Passion Fruit Plant. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 33, 1329-1341.
[3] Pinho, L.G.R., Monnerat, P.H., Pires, A.A. and Santos, A.L.A. (2008) Boron Absorption and Redistribution in Green Dwarf Coconut Tree. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 43, 1769-1775.
[4] Kamalakshiamma, P.G. and Shanavas, M. (2002) Boron Deficiency in Coconut. Symptoms and Corrections. Indian Coconut Journal, 32, 1-5.
[5] Santos, A.L. (2002) Establishment of Rules for Foliar Sampling for Assessment of Nutritional Status and Mineral Fertilization of Green Dwarf Coconut in North Fluminense. Thesis, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
[6] Elliott, M.L., Broschat, T.K., Uchida, J.Y. and Simone, G.W. (2004) Compendium of Ornamental Palm Diseases and Disorders. Amer. Phytopath. Soc. Press, St. Paul.
[7] Broschat, T.K. (2007) Boron Deficiency Symptoms in Palms. Palms, 51, 115-126.
[8] Power, P.P. and Woods, W.G. (1997) The Chemistry of Boron and Its Speciation in Plants. Plant and Soil, 193, 1-13.
[9] Hu, H., Penn, S.G., Lebrilla, C.B. and Brown, P.H. (1997) Isolation and Characterization of Soluble Boron Complexes in Higher Plants.The Mechanism of Phloem Mobility of Boron. Plant Physiology, 113, 649-655.
[10] Pinho, L.G.R., Campostrini, E., Monnerat, P.H., PiresNetto, A.T., Marciano, C.R. and Soares, Y.J.B. (2010) Boron Deficiency Affects Gas Exchange and Photochemical Efficiency (JPI Test Parameters) in Green Dwarf Coconut. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 33, 439-451.
[11] Ramos, V.H.V., Pinto, A.C.Q., Aragao, W.M., Gomes, A.C., Junqueira, N.T.V., Lobato, E. and Oliveira, M.A.S. (2004) Behavior of Dwarf Cultivars and Hybrids of Coconut in Brasília, Distrito Federal. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 26, 363-365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452004000200045
[12] dos Santos, A.L., Monnerat, P.H. and Alves, E.A.B. (2003) Foliar Boron Content Depending on the Application of Borax in Leaf Axil of Green Dwarf Coconut in Norte Fluminense. Pesquisa Agropecuária e Desenvolvimento Sustentável, 1, 165-171.
[13] Chew, P.S. (1978) Nutrition of Coconuts—A Review for Formulating Guidelines on Fertilizer Recommendations in Malaysia. Planter, 54, 115-141.
[14] Ferreira, J.M.S. (1998) Pests of Coconut. In: Ferreira, M.J.S., Warwick, D.R.N. and Siqueira, L.A., Eds., The Coconut in Brazil, 2nd Edition, Embrapa-CPATC, Aracaju, 189-267.
[15] Broschat, T.K. (2007) Boron Deficiency, Phenoxy Herbicides, Stem Bending, and Branching in Palms. Is There a Connection? Palms, 51, 161-163.
[16] Broschat, T.K. (2011) Uptake and Distribution of Boron in Coconut and Paurotis Palms. HortScience, 46, 1683-1686.
[17] Jones Jr., J.B., Wolf, B. and Mills, H.A. (1991) Plant Analysis Handbook: A Practical Sampling, Preparation, Analysis, and Interpretation Guide. Micro-Macro Publishing, Athens.
[18] Malavolta, E., Vitti, G.C. and Oliveira, S.A. (1997) Evaluation of the Nutritional State of Plants. Associacao Brasileira para Pesquisa da Potassa e do Fosfato, Piracicaba.
[19] Alves, V.M.C., Pitta, E.G.V., Coelho, A.M., France, G.E. and de Oliveira, C.A. (2003) Diagnose Foliar. Technical Communication No. 90.
[20] Coelho, A.M., France, G.E., Pitta, E.G.V. and Alves, V.M.C. (2002) Growing Corn: Foliar Diagnosis of Plant Nutritional Status. Technical Communication No. 45.
[21] da Silva, J.R.A. and de Souza Falcao, N.P. (2002) Characterization of Symptoms of Nutritional Deficiencies in Peach Palm Seedlings Grown in Nutrient Solution. Acta Amazonica, 32, 529-539.
[22] de Matos, G.S.B., Fernandes, A.R. and Carvalho, J.G. (2013) Symptoms of Deficiency and Growth of Peach Palm Seedlings Due to Omission of Micronutrients. Revista de Ciências Agrarias, 56, 166-172.
[23] La Torraca, S.M., Haag, H.P. and Dechen, A.R. (1984) Mineral Nutrition of Tropical Fruit I. Symptoms of Nutritional Deficiencies in Peach Palm. O Solo, 76, 53-56.
[24] Naiff, A.P.M., Viégas, I.deJ.M. and de Lima, S.S. (2003) Characterization of Symptoms of Micronutrient Deficiencies in Plants of Acaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.). In: I Seminar on Scientific Initiation UFRA and VII Seminar on Scientific Initiation, Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Belém.
[25] Mirisola Filho, L.A. (2002) Growing Dwarf Coconut. Aprenda Fácil., Vicosa.
[26] Brown, P.H. and Hu, H. (1996) Phloem Mobility of Boron Is Species Dependent: Evidence for Phloem Mobility in Sorbitol Rich Species. Annals of Botany, 77, 497-506.
[27] Hu, H. and Brown, P.H. (1994) Localization of Boron in the Cell Walls of Squash and Tobacco and Its Association with Pectin. Plant Physiology, 105, 681-689.
[28] Cakmak, I. and Romheld, V. (1997) Boron Deficiency-Induced Impairments of Cellular Functions in Plants. Plant and Soil, 193, 71-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1004259808322
[29] Dannel, F., Pfeffer, H. and Romheld, V. (2000) Characterization of Root Boron Pools, Boron Uptake and Boron Translocation in Sunflower Using the Stable Isotopes 10B and 11B. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 27, 397-405.
[30] EMBRAPA—Embrapa Solos (2009) Manual of Chemical Analysis of Soils, Plants and Fertilizers. Embrapa Information Technology, Brasília, 627p.
[31] Rajaratnam, J.A. (1972) The Distribution and Mobility of Boron within the Oil Palm, Elaeisguineensis L. I. Natural Distribution. Annals of Botany, 36, 289-297.
[32] Mills, H.A. and Jones Jr., J.B. (1996) Plant Analysis Handbook II. A Practical Sampling, Preparation, Analysis, and Interpretation Guide. Micro-Macro Publishing, Athens.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.