Spatial Distribution of Regenerated Woody Plants in Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica Stand in Japan


The role of N2 fixation in structuring plant communities and influencing ecosystem function will be potentially large. In previous study, we investigated nodule biomass and activity, and calculated the amount of N2 fixation in a naturally established 18-year-old alder (Alnus hirsute (Turcz.) var. sibirica) stand following disturbance by road construction in Takayama, central Japan. In this study, to estimate the facilitation effects by alder on the spatial distribution of the regenerated tree species, we examined the distribution pattern of the regenerated tree species in this naturally established 18-year-old alder stand. The distribution pattern of alder and the regenerated woody species was analyzed in terms of spatial point processes and the regenerated species tended to distribute near the alder site. In particular, bird-dispersed tree species (endozoochory species) with relatively high shade tolerance showed a significant attraction to alder. These results suggest that alder will be used as roost trees and play the role of mother trees for these regenerated species at the degraded site. It was also suggested that the endozoochory species, which occupy 13 of 26 regenerated species in this stand, might regenerate faster than other species at this alder stand.

Share and Cite:

Tobita, H. , Nanami, S. , Hasegawa, S. , Yazaki, K. , Komatsu, M. and Kitao, M. (2015) Spatial Distribution of Regenerated Woody Plants in Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica Stand in Japan. Open Journal of Forestry, 5, 210-220. doi: 10.4236/ojf.2015.52019.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Armest, J. J., Pickett, S. T. A., & McDonnell, M. J. (1991). Spatial Heterogeneity during Succession: A Cyclic Model of Invasion and Exclusion. In J. Kolasa, & S. T. A. Pickett (Eds.), Ecological Heterogeneity (pp. 256-269). New York: Springer-Verlag.
[2] Baker, D. D., & Schwintzer, C. R. (1990). Introduction. In C. R. Schwintzer, & J. D. Tjepkema (Eds.), The biology of Frankia and Actinorhizal Plants (pp. 1-13). Tokyo: Academic Press.
[3] Besag, J. (1977). Contribution to the Discussion on Dr. Ripley’s Paper. Journals of the Royal Statistical Society, B39, 193-195.
[4] Callaway, R. M., & Walker, L. R. (1997). Competition and Facilitation: A Synthetic Approach to Interactions in Plant Communities. Ecology, 78, 1958-1965.[1958:CAFASA]2.0.CO;2
[5] Carlson, P. J., & Dawson, J. O. (1985). Soil Nitrogen Changes, Early Growth, and Response to Soil Internal Drainage of a Plantation of Alnus jorullensis in the Colombian Highlands. Turrialba, 35, 141-150.
[6] Chapin III, F. S., Walker, L. R., Fastie, C. L., & Sharman, L. C. (1994). Mechanisms of Primary Succession Following Deglaciation at Glacier Bay, Alaska. Ecological Monographs, 64, 149-175.
[7] Diggle, P. J. (1983). Statistical Analysis of Spatial Point Pattern (pp. 148). London: Academic Press.
[8] Enoki, T., Kawaguchi, H., & Iwatsubo, G. (1997). Nutrient-Uptake and Nutrient-Use Efficiency of Pinus thunbergii Parl. along a Topographical Gradient of Soil Nutrient Availability. Ecological Research, 12, 191-199.
[9] Finegan, G. B. (1984). Forest Succession. Nature, 312, 109-114.
[10] Hanley, T. A., Deal, R. L., & Orlikowska, E. H. (2006). Relationships between Red Alder Composition and Understory Vegetation in Young Mixed Forests of Southeast Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 36, 738-748.
[11] Hasegawa, S., & Takeda, H. (2001). Functional Specialization of Current Shoots as a Reproductive Strategy in Japanese Alder (Alnus hirsuta var. sibirica). Canadian Journal of Botany, 79, 38-48.
[12] Hatton, T. J. (1989). Spatial Analysis of a Subalpine Heath Woodland. Australian Journal of Ecology, 14, 65-75.
[13] Houle, G. (1992). Spatial Relationship between Seed and Seedling Abundance and Mortality in a Deciduous Forest of North-Eastern North America. Journal of Ecology, 80, 99-108.
[14] Hunter, A. F., & Aarssen, L. W. (1988). Plants Helping Plants. BioScience, 38, 34-40.
[15] Johnson, R. A., Willson, M. F., Thompson, J. N., & Bertin, R. I. (1985). Nutritional Values of Wild Fruits and Consumption by Migrant Birds. Journal of Ecology, 66, 819-827.
[16] Katsuta, M., Mori, T., & Yokoyama, T. (1998). Seeds of Woody Plants in Japan. Angiospermae. Tokyo: Japan Forest Tree Breeding Association. (In Japanese).
[17] Lotwick, H. M., & Silverman, B. W. (1982). Methods for Analysing Spatial Processes of Several Types of Points. Journals of the Royal Statistical Society, 44, 406-413.
[18] Maltez-Mouro, S., Garcia, L. V., Maranon, T., & Freitas, H. (2007). Recruitment Patterns in a Mediterranean Oak Forest: A Case Study Showing the Importance of the Spatial Component. Forest Science, 53, 645-652.
[19] Masaki, T., Suzuki, W., Niiyama, K., Iida, S., Tanaka, H., & Nakashizuka, T. (1992). Community Structure of a Species-Rich Temperate Forest, Ogawa Forest Reserve, Central Japan. Vegetatio, 98, 97-111.
[20] Nakanishi, H. (1996). Fruit Color and Fruit Size of Bird-Disseminated Plants in Japan. Vegetatio, 123, 207-218.
[21] Nanami, S., Kawaguchi, H., & Yamakura, T. (1999). Dioecy-Iduced Spatial Patterns of Two Codominant Tree Species. Podocarpus nagi and Neolitsea aciculata. Journal of Ecology, 87, 678-687.
[22] Peterson, C. J., & Squiers, E. R. (1995). An Unexpected Change in Spatial Pattern across 10 Years in an Aspen-White-Pine Forest. Journal of Ecology, 83, 847-855.
[23] Ripley, B. D. (1977). Modeling Spatial Patterns. Journals of the Royal Statistical Society, 39, 172-212.
[24] Sharma, E., & Ambasht, R. S. (1988). Nitrogen Accretion and Its Energetics in the Himalayan Alder. Functional Ecology, 2, 229-235.
[25] Thomas, B. D., & Bowman, W. D. (1998). Influence of N2-Fixing Trifolium on Plant Species Composition and Biomass Production in Alpine Tundra. Oecologia, 115, 26-34.
[26] Tjepkema, J. D., Schwintzer, C. R., & Benson, D. R. (1986). Physiology of Actinorhizal Nodules. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 37, 209-232.
[27] Tobita, H., Enoki, T., & Kawaguchi, H. (1993). Effects of Site Conditions on Natural Regeneration in a Pinus thunbergii Plantation on Mt. Tanakami. Bulletin of the Kyoto University Forest, 65, 50-62. (In Japanese)
[28] Tobita, H., Hasegawa, F. S., Komatsu, M., & Kitao, M. (2013a). Growth and N2 Fixation in an Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica Stand in Japan. Journal of Bioscience, 38, 761-776.
[29] Tobita, H., Hasegawa, F. S., Tian, X., Nanami, S., & Takeda, H. (2010). Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2, Phosphorus Deficiency, and Soil Drought on Nodulation and Nitrogenase Activity in Alnus hirsuta and Alnus maximowiczii. Symbiosis, 50, 59-69.
[30] Tobita, H., Kucho, K., & Yamanaka, T. (2013b). Abiotic Factors Influencing Nitrogen-Fixing Actinorhizal Symbioses. In A. Ricardo (Ed.), Symbiotic Endophytes (pp. 103-122). New York: Springer-Verlag.
[31] Vitousek, P. M., & Howarth, R. W. (1991). Nitrogen Limitation on Land and in the Sea: How Can It Occur? Biogeochemistry, 13, 87-115.
[32] Walker, L. W., & Chapin III., F. S. (1987). Interactions among Processes Controlling Successional Change. Oikos, 50, 131-135.
[33] Zitzer, S. F., & Dawson, J. O. (1992). Soil Properties and Actinorhizal Vegetation Influence Nodulation of Alnus glutinosa and Elaeagnus angustifolia by Frankia. Plant and Soil, 140, 197-204.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.