Development and Preliminary Validation of the Shared Professional Leadership Inventory for Teams (SPLIT)

DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.61008   PDF   HTML   XML   4,371 Downloads   6,459 Views   Citations


Shared leadership is viewed as an effective management form to encounter increased complexity in modern work life. However, the lack of reliable and valid instruments to assess shared leadership behaviors has limited empirical research. Based on literature in leadership and team work research a questionnaire was developed to assess four different aspects of shared leadership behavior—task-, relation-, change- and micropolitic-oriented leadership. The final version consisted of 20 items. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the theoretically hypothesized model in two independent German samples. Significant correlations with related scales support convergent and criterion validity. This study therefore provides researchers with a valid and reliable instrument to assess different aspects of shared leadership behavior and its advantages for research and human resource development are discussed.

Share and Cite:

Grille, A. & Kauffeld, S. (2015). Development and Preliminary Validation of the Shared Professional Leadership Inventory for Teams (SPLIT). Psychology, 6, 75-92. doi: 10.4236/psych.2015.61008.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Agnew, C. R., Carlston, D. E., Graziano, W.G., & Kelly, J. R. (2009). Then a Miracle Occurs: Focusing on Behavior in Social Psychological Theory and Research. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
[2] Aiken, M., & Hage, J. (1968).Organizational Interdependence and Intra-Organizational Structure. American Sociological Review, 33, 912-930.
[3] Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 411-423.
[4] Anderson, N., & West, M. (1996). The Team Climate Inventory: Development of the TCI and Its Applications in Teambuilding for Innovativeness. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5, 53-66.
[5] Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M., & Jung, D. I. (1999). Re-Examining the Components of Transformational and Transactional Leadership Using the Multifactor Leadership. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, 441-462.
[6] Avolio, B. J., Reichard, R. J., Hannah, S. T., Walumbwa, F. O., & Chan, A. (2009). 100 Years of Leadership Intervention Studies: A Meta-Analysis. The Leadership Quarterly, 20, 764-784.
[7] Avolio, B. J., Sivasubramaniam, N., Murry, W. D., Jung, D., & Garger, J. W. (2003). Development and Preliminary Validation of a Team Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. In C. L. Pearce, & J. A. Conger (Eds.), Shared Leadership: Reframing the Hows and Whys of Leadership (pp. 143-172). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
[8] Balkundi, P., & Kilduff, M. (2006). The Ties That Lead: A Social Network Approach to Leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 419-439.
[9] Barisch, S. (2011). Empirische Uberprufung des Erklarungsmodells zur Optimierung der hierarchischen Teamzusammensetzung. In S. Barisch (Ed.), Optimierung von Verhandlungsteams (pp. 147-215). Wiesbaden: Gabler.
[10] Bass, B. M. (1990). Handbook of Leadership. Theory, Research & Managerial Applications (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.
[11] Bergman, J. Z., Rentsch, J. R., Small, E. E., Davenport, S. W., & Bergman, S. M. (2012). The Shared Leadership Process in Decision-Making Teams. The Journal of Social Psychology, 152, 17-42.
[12] Binnewies, C., Ohly, S., & Niessen, C. (2008). Age and Creativity at Work—The Interplay between Job Resources, Age and Idea Creativity. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23, 438-457.
[13] Blaschke, S., Schoeneborn, D., & Seidl, D. (2012). Organizations as Networks of Communication Episodes: Turning the Network Perspectives Inside Out. Organization Studies, 33, 297-459.
[14] Blase, J., & Blase, J. (1997). The Micropolitical Orientation of Facilitative School Principals and Its Effects on Teachers’ Sense of Empowerment. Journal of Educational Administration, 35, 138-164.
[15] Bono, J. E., & Anderson, M. H. (2005). The Advice and Influence Networks of Transformational Leaders. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1306-1314.
[16] Brass, D. J. (2001). Social Capital and Organizational Leadership. In S. J. Zaccaro, & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), The Nature of Organizational Leadership: Understanding the Performance Imperatives Confronting Today’s Leaders (pp. 132-152). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
[17] Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
[18] Burns, T. (1961). Micropolitics: Mechanisms of Institutional Change. Administrative Science Quarterly, 6, 257-281.
[19] Byrne, B. M. (2012). Structural Equation Modeling with Mplus: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming. New York, NY: Routledge.
[20] Carson, J. B., Tesluk, P. E., & Marrone, J. A. (2007). Shared Leadership in Teams: An Investigation of Antecedent Conditions and Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 1217-1234.
[21] Chan, D. (1998). Functional Relations among Constructs in the Same Content Domain at Different Levels of Analysis: A Typology of Composition Models. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 234-246.
[22] Clarke, N. (2012). Evaluating Leadership Training and Development: A Levels-of-Analysis Perspective. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 23, 441-460.
[23] Clarke, N. (2013). Model of Complexity Leadership Development. Human Resource Development International, 16, 135-150.
[24] Costello, A. B. & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best Practices in Exploratory Factor Analysis: Four Recommendations for Getting the Most from Your Analysis. Practical Assessment Research & Evaluation, 10, 1-9.
[25] Cross, R., & Prusak, L. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—Or Stop. Harvard Business Review, 80, 104-112.
[26] Crowley, S., & Fan, X. (1997). Structural Equation Modeling: Basic Concepts and Applications in Personality Assessment Research. Journal of Personality Assessment, 68, 508-531.
[27] Eagly, A. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., & Van Engen, M. L. (2003). Transformational, Transactional, and Laissez-Faire Leadership Styles: A Meta-Analysis Comparing Women and Men. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 569-591.
[28] Ellinger, A. D., Ellinger, A. E., & Keller, S. B. (2003). Supervisory Coaching Behavior, Employee Satisfaction, and Warehouse Employee Performance: A Dyadic Perspective in the Distribution Industry. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 14, 435-458.
[29] Ensley, M. D., Hmieleski, K. M., & Pearce, C. L. (2006). The Importance of Vertical and Shared Leadership within New Venture Top Management Teams: Implications for the Performance of Startups. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 217-231.
[30] Fleishman, E. A. (1953). The Description of Supervisory Behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 37, 181-210.
[31] Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error: Algebra and Statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 382-388.
[32] Gil, F., Rico, R., Alcover, C. M., & Barrasa, A. (2005). Change-Oriented Leadership, Satisfaction and Performance in Work Groups: Effects of Team Climate and Group Potency. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20, 312-328.
[33] Gilley, A., Dixon, P., & Gilley, J. W. (2008). Characteristics of Leadership Effectiveness: Implementing Change and Driving Innovation in Organizations. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 19, 153-169.
[34] Glanville, J. L., & Wildhagen, T. (2007). The Measurement of School Engagement Assessing Dimensionality and Measurement Invariance across Race and Ethnicity. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 67, 1019-1041.
[35] Gockel, C., & Werth, L. (2010). Measuring and Modeling Shared Leadership. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9, 172-180.
[36] Goldstein, H. (2011). Multilevel Statistical Models. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
[37] Graham, J. M., Guthrie, A. C., & Thompson, B. (2003). Consequences of Not Interpreting Structure Coefficients in Published CFA Research: A Reminder. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 10, 142-153.
[38] Grohmann, A., & Kauffeld, S. (2013). Evaluating Training Programs: Development and Correlates of the Questionnaire for Professional Training Evaluation. International Journal of Training and Development, 17, 135-155.
[39] Grossman, R., & Salas, E. (2011). The Transfer of Training: What Really Matters. International Journal of Training and Development, 15, 103-120.
[40] Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 159-170.
[41] Hair Jr., J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2009). Multivariate Data Analysis—A Global Perspective. Boston, MA: Pearson.
[42] Hamstra, M. R., Van Yperen, N. W., Wisse, B., & Sassenberg, K. (In Press). On the Perceived Effectiveness of Transformational-Transactional Leadership: The Role of Encouraged Strategies and Followers’ Regulatory Focus. European Journal of Social Psychology.
[43] Hatala, J. P. (2006). Social Network Analysis in Human Resource Development: A New Methodology. Human Resource Development Review, 5, 45-71.
[44] Hiller, N. J., Day, D. V., & Vance, R. J. (2006). Collective Enactment of Leadership Roles and Team Effectiveness: A Field Study. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 387-397.
[45] Hmieleski, K. M., Cole, M. S., & Baron, R. A. (2012). Shared Authentic Leadership and New Venture Performance. Journal of Management, 38, 1476-1499.
[46] Hoch, J. E. (2013). Shared Leadership and Innovation: The Role of Vertical Leadership and Employee Integrity. Journal of Business and Psychology, 28, 159-174.
[47] Hoch, J. E., & Duhlebohn, J. H. (2013). Shared Leadership in Enterprise Resource Planning and Human Resource Management System Implementation. Human Resource Management Review, 23, 114-125.
[48] Hoch, J. E., Dulebohn, J. H., & Pearce, C. L. (2010a). Shared Leadership Questionnaire (SLQ): Developing a Short Scale to Measure Shared and Vertical Leadership in Teams. Visual Presentation at the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) Conference 2010, Atlanta.
[49] Hoch, J. E., Pearce, C. L., & Welzel, L. (2010b). Is the Most Effective Team Leadership Shared? Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9, 105-116.
[50] Hoon Song, J., Kolb, J. A., Hee Lee, U., & Kyoung Kim, H. (2012). Role of Transformational Leadership in Effective Organizational Knowledge Creation Practices: Mediating Effects of Employees’ Work Engagement. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 23, 65-101.
[51] House, R. J. (1996). Path-Goal Theory of Leadership: Lessons, Legacy, and a Reformulated Theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 7, 323-352.
[52] Hui, R. T. Y., Sue-Chan, C., & Wood, R. E. (2013). The Contrasting Effects of Coaching Style on Task Performance: The Mediating Roles of Subjective Task Complexity and Self-Set Goal. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 24, 429-458.
[53] Johnson, R. E., Rosen, C. C., & Djurdjevic, E. (2011). Assessing the Impact of Common Method Variance on Higher Order Multidimensional Constructs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 744-761.
[54] Joshi, A. (2006). The Influence of Organizational Demography on the External Networking Behavior of Teams. Academy of Management Review, 31, 583-595.
[55] Judge, T. A., & Piccolo, R. F. (2004). Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analytic Test of Their Relative Validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 755-768.
[56] Judge, T. A., Piccolo, R. F., & Ilies, R. (2004). The Forgotten Ones? The Validity of Consideration and Initiating Structure in Leadership Research. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 36-51.
[57] Kauffeld, S., & Frieling, E. (2001). Der Fragebogen zur Arbeit im Team (F-A-T). Zeitschrift fur Arbeitsund Organisationspsychologie, 45, 26-33.
[58] Kauffeld, S., Jonas, E., Grote, S., Frey, D., & Frieling, E. (2004). Innovationsklima-Konstruktion und erste Psychometrische Uberprufung eines Messinstrumentes. Diagnostica, 50, 153-164.
[59] Kirkman, B. L., & Rosen, B. (1999). Beyond Self-Management: Antecedents and Consequences of Team Empowerment. Academy of Management Journal, 42, 58-74.
[60] Kotter, J. P. (2001). What Leaders Really Do. Harvard Business Review, 79, 85-98.
[61] Kowske, B. J., & Anthony, K. (2007). Towards Defining Leadership Competence around the World: What Mid-Level Managers Need to Know in Twelve Countries. Human Resource Development International, 10, 21-41.
[62] Kuchinke, K. P. (1998). The Influence of Leadership Styles on Subordinates’ Attitudes towards Their Leaders and towards Performance. A Comparison of US and German Manufacturing Employees. Human Resource Development International, 1, 291-308.
[63] Kunzle, B., Zala-Mezo, E., Kolbe, M., Wacker, J., & Grote, G. (2010). Substitutes for Leadership in Anaesthesia Teams and Their Impact on Leadership Effectiveness. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 19, 505-531.
[64] Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., Grohmann, A., & Kauffeld, S. (2011). Task and Relationship Conflict at Work: Construct Validation of a German Version of Jehn’s Intragroup Conflict Scale. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 27, 171-178.
[65] Liu, S., Hu, H., Li, Y., Wang, Z., & Lin, Y. (2014). Examining the Cross-Level Relationship between Shared Leadership and Learning in Teams: Evidence from China. The Leadership Quarterly, 25, 282-295.
[66] Lowe, K. B., Kroeck, K. G., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (1996). Effectiveness Correlates of Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analytic Review of the MLQ Literature. The Leadership Quarterly, 7, 385-415.
[67] Marsh, H. W., Hau, K. & Wen, Z. (2004). In Search of Golden Rules: Comment on Hypothesis-Testing Approaches to Setting Cutoff Values for Fit Indexes and Dangers in Overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s Findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11, 320-341.
[68] Martínez Caro, L., & Martinez Garcia, J. A. (2007). Cognitive-Affective Model of Consumer Satisfaction: An Exploratory Study within the Framework of a Sporting Event. Journal of Business Research, 60, 108-114.
[69] Mathisen, G. E., Torsheim, T., & Einarsen, S. (2006). The Team-Level Model of Climate for Innovation: A Two-Level Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 79, 23-35.
[70] McIntyre, H. H., & Foti, R. J. (2013). The Impact of Shared Leadership on Teamwork Mental Models and Performance in Self-Directed Teams. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 16, 46-57.
[71] Mehra, A., Smith, B. R., Dixon, A. L., & Robertson, B. (2006). Distributed Leadership in Teams: The Network of Leadership Perceptions and Team Performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 232-245.
[72] Morgeson, F. P., DeRue, D. S., & Karam, E. P. (2010). Leadership in Teams: A Functional Approach to Understanding Leadership Structures and Processes. Journal of Management, 36, 5-39.
[73] Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. (2012). 1998-2012. Mplus User’s Guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthen & Muthen.
[74] Nakamura, Y. T., & Yorks, L. (2011). The Role of Reflective Practices in Building Social Capital in Organizations from an HRD Perspective. Human Resource Development Review, 10, 222-245.
[75] Newman, J. (2005). Enter the Transformational Leader: Network Governance and the Micro-Politics of Modernization. Sociology, 39, 717-734.
[76] Nijstad, B. A., Berger-Selman, F., & De Dreu, C. K. W. (2014). Innovation in Top Management Teams: Minority Dissent, Transformational Leadership, and Radical Innovations. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23, 310-322.
[77] Noe, R. A. (2002). Employee Training and Development. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
[78] Pearce, C. L., & Manz, C. C. (2005). The New Silver Bullets of Leadership: The Importance of Self- and Shared Leadership Knowledge Work. Organizational Dynamics, 34, 130-140.
[79] Pearce, C. L., & Sims Jr., H. P. (2002). Vertical versus Shared Leadership as Predictors of the Effectiveness of Change Management Teams: An Examination of Aversive, Directive, Transactional, Transformational, and Empowering Leader Behaviors. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 6, 172-197.
[80] Pearce, C. L., Hoch, J. E., Jeppesen, H. J., & Wegge, J. (2010). New Forms of Management. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9, 151-153.
[81] Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879-903.
[82] Raftery, A. E. (1995). Bayesian Model Selection in Social Research. Sociological Methodology, 25, 111-164.
[83] Saks, A. M., Tamkin, P., & Lewis, P. (2011). Management Training and Development. International Journal of Training and Development, 15, 179-183.
[84] Schmidt, K. H., & Kleinbeck, U. (1999). Job Diagnosticsurvey (JDS-Deutsche Fassung). In H. Dunckel, (Eds.), Handbuch Psychologischer Arbeitsanalyseverfahren (pp. 205-230). Zurich: vdf Hochschulverlag.
[85] Seltzer, J., & Bass, B. M. (1990). Transformational Leadership: Beyond Initiation and Consideration. Journal of Management, 16, 693-703.
[86] Sheehan, M., Garavan, T. N., & Carbery, R. (2014). Innovation and Human Resource Development (HRD). European Journal of Training and Development, 38, 2-14.
[87] Shrout, P. E., & Yager, T. J. (1989). Reliability and Validity of Screening Scales: Effect of Reducing Scale Length. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 42, 69-78.
[88] Shuck, B., & Herd, A. M. (2012). Employee Engagement and Leadership Exploring the Convergence of Two Frameworks and Implications for Leadership Development in HRD. Human Resource Development Review, 11, 156-181.
[89] Singh, R. N., & Mohanty, R. P. (2011). Participation Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: Moderating Role of Employee’s Cultural Values. Human Resource Development International, 14, 583-603.
[90] Small, E. E., & Rentsch, J. R. (2010). Shared Leadership in Teams. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9, 203-211.
[91] Stober, J. (2001). The Social Desirability Scale-17 (SDS-17): Convergent Validity, Discriminant Validity, and Relationship with Age. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 17, 222-232.
[92] Thompson, B. (2005). Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Understanding Concepts and Applications. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
[93] Waite, A. M. (2013). Leadership’s Influence on Innovation and Sustainability: A Review of the Literature and Implications for HRD. European Journal of Training and Development, 38, 15-39.
[94] Waldman, D. A., Bass, B. M., & Einstein, W. O. (1987). Leadership and Outcomes of Performance Appraisal Processes. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 60, 177-186.
[95] Walumbwa, F. O., Orwa, B., Wang, P., & Lawler, J. J. (2005). Transformational Leadership, Organizational Commitment, and Job Satisfaction: A Comparative Study of Kenyan and US Financial Firms. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16, 235-256.
[96] Wang, D., Waldman, D. A., & Zhang, Z. (2014). A Meta-Analysis of Shared Leadership and Team Effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99, 181-198.
[97] Wang, J., & Wang, X. (2012). Structural Equation Modeling: Applications using Mplus. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
[98] Wasylyshyn, K. M. (2003). Executive Coaching: An Outcome Study. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 55, 94-106.
[99] Wegge, J., Jeppesen, H. J., Weber, W. G., Pearce, C. L., Silva, S. A., Piecha, A. et al. (2010). Promoting Work Motivation in Organizations. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9, 154-171.
[100] West, M. (1999). Micropolitics, Leadership and All That: The Need to Increase the Micropolitical Awareness and Skills of School Leaders. School Leadership & Management, 19, 189-195.
[101] West, M. A. (2012). Effective Teamwork: Practical Lessons from Organizational Research. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
[102] Williams, F., & Foti, R. J. (2011). Formally Developing Creative Leadership as a Driver of Organizational Innovation. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13, 279-296.
[103] Wolff, H.-G., & Moser, K. (2009). Effects of Networking on Career Success: A Longitudinal Study. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 196-206.
[104] Yukl, G. (1999). An Evaluative Essay on Current Conceptions of Effective Leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8, 33-38.
[105] Yukl, G., & van Fleet, D. D. (1992). Theory and Research on Leadership in Organisations. In M. D. Dunnette, & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 3 (pp. 147-197). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
[106] Yukl, G., Gordon, A., & Taber, T. (2002). A Hierarchical Taxonomy of Leadership Behavior: Integrating a Half Century of Behavior Research. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 9, 15-32.
[107] Zhang, M., Zheng, W., & Wei, J. (2009). Sources of Social Capital: Effects of Altruistic Citizenship Behavior and Job Involvement on Advice Network Centrality. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 20, 195-217.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.