Preparation of Dried Vegetarian Soup Supplemented with Some Legumes


The present work was aimed to prepare dried vegetarian soup supplemented with some legumes. Potatoes, hull-less barley flour, carrot, tomatoes, onion, garlic, salt, black pepper, coriander and cumin (served as F1) were used in combination with lentil, green pea and chickpea to formulate F2, F3, and F4, respectively. Chemical, physical, rheological and sensory evaluation was performed. The results indicated that supplementation with legumes significantly enhanced the nutritional characteristics, where the dried vegetarian soup mixtures had reasonable amounts of the required nutrients particularly, protein, carbohydrates, fats, Fe and Zn with good in vitro protein digestibility and mineral availability. Moisture content and water activity predicted the extended shelf-life and stability of the dried soup mixtures. The four resultant soup samples F1, F2, F3 and F4 had a noticeable viscosity pattern characterized by a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic flow behavior. Supplementation with legumes significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affects taste, color, flavor attributes and overall acceptability of the resultant soup samples. But, it had no significant effect on thickness and appearance. The results clearly demonstrated the usefulness of supplementing the dried vegetarian soup mixtures with legumes to enhance nutritional and technological quality of the resultant soup and lentil was the most valuable addition with the highest acceptability.

Share and Cite:

Abdel-Haleem, A. and Omran, A. (2014) Preparation of Dried Vegetarian Soup Supplemented with Some Legumes. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 2274-2285. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.522241.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Krejcová, A., Cernohorsky, T. and Meixner, D. (2007) Elemental Analysis of Instant Soups and Seasoning Mixtures by ICP-OES. Food Chemistry, 105, 242-247.
[2] Luh, B.S. and Woodroof, J.G. (1975) Commercial Vegetable Processing. The Avi Publishing Company, Inc., Westport.
[3] Osman, M.A., El-Damaty, S., Shaheen, A. and Ibrahim, M.M. (1991) Production of Precooked Dehydrated Soups. Preparation of Beef Meat, Vegetable Soup and Chemical, Sensory and Keeping Quality Evaluations. Egyptian Journal of Food Science, 19, 257-267.
[4] El Wakeel, M.A. (2007) Ultra Structure and Functional Properties of Some Dry Mixes of Food. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo.
[5] Rekha, M.N.A., Yadav, R., Dharmesh, S., Chauhan, A.S. and Ramteke, R.S. (2010) Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Dry Soup Mix Extracts Containing Dill (Anethum sowa L.) Leaf. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 3, 441-449.
[6] Axtell, B. (1992) Some Economic Considerations of Drying. Food Chain, 7, 17-18.
[7] Pandey, M., Anbidi, A.B., Siagh, S. and Singh, R.P. (2006) Nutritional Evaluation of Leafy Vegetable Paratha. Journal of Human Ecology, 19, 155-156.
[8] Ravindran, G. and Matia-Merino, L. (2009) Starch-Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) Polysaccharide Interactions in Pure and Soup Systems. Food Hydrocolloids, 23, 1047-1053.
[9] Kurien, P.P. (1981) Processing of Pulses. Proceedings of the Workshop on Grain Legumes, Protein Foods and Nutrition Development Association of India, Bombay, 6877.
[10] Hooda, S. and Jood, S. (2005) Organoleptic and Nutritional Evaluation of Wheat Biscuits Supplemented with Untreated and Treated Fenugreek Flour. Food Chemistry, 90, 427-435.
[11] AOAC (2005) Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Edition, Washington DC.
[12] James, C.S. (1995) General Food Studies. In: Analytical Chemistry of Foods, Blachie Academic and Professional, London, New York, Tokyo, Chapter 6, 135.
[13] Akeson, W.R. and Stahmann, A. (1964) A Pepsin Pancreatin Digest Index of Protein Quality. Journal of Nutrition, 83, 257-261.
[14] Kiers, J.L., Nout, M.J.R. and Rombouts, F.M. (2000) In Vitro Digestibility of Processed and Fermented Soya Bean, Cowpea and Maize. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80, 1325-1331.<1325::AID-JSFA648>3.0.CO;2-K
[15] Cadden, A.M. (1988) Moisture Sorption Characteristics of Several Food Fibers. Journal of Food Science, 53, 11501155.
[16] McGurie, R.G. (1992) Reporting of Objective Color Measurements. HortScience, 27, 1254-1255.
[17] Brookfield Manual (1998) Brookfield Manual Operating Instruction. No. M/98-211-B0104. Brookfield Engineering Laboratories Inc., Middleborough.
[18] Krokida, M.K. and Marinos-Kouris, D. (2003) Rehydration Kinetics of Dehydrated Products. Journal of Food Engineering, 57, 1-7.
[19] Wang, R., Zhang, M., Mujumdar, A.S. and Sun, J.C. (2009) Microwave Freeze-Drying Characteristics and Sensory Quality of Instant Vegetable Soup. Drying Technology, 27, 962-968.
[20] Roy, F., Boye, J.I. and Simpson, B.K. (2010) Bioactive Proteins and Peptides in Pulse Crops: Pea, Chickpea and Lentil: A Review. Food Research International, 43, 432-442.
[21] Adsule, R.N. (1996) Food and Feed from Legumes and Oil Seeds. In: Nwoloko, E. and Smartt, J., Eds., Food and Feed from Legumes and Oil Seeds, Chapman and Hall Publisher, 84-110.
[22] Shah, H.U., Khan, U.L., Alam, S., Shad, A.A., Iqbal, Z. and Parveen, S. (2011) Effect of Home Cooking on the Retention of Various Nutrients in Commonly Consumed Pulses in Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 27, 279-284.
[23] Jokanovic, M.R., Jovicevic, D., Jepic, A.N. and Vujicic, B.L. (2006) Suitability of Some Green Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Varieties for Processing. Acta Periodica Technologica, 37, 13-20.
[24] Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate. Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). The National Academies Press, Washington DC.
[25] Cámara, F., Amaro, M.A., Barberá, R. and Clemente, G. (2005) Bioaccessibility of Minerals in School Meals: Comparison between Dialysis and Solubility Methods. Food Chemistry, 92, 481-489.
[26] Yip, R. (2001) Present Knowledge in Nutrition. In: Bowman, B.A. and Russell, R.M., Eds., Present Knowledge in Nutrition, ILSI Press, Washington DC, 311-328.
[27] Hambidge, M. (2000) Human Zinc Deficiency. Journal of Nutrition, 130, 1344S-1349S.
[28] Salgueiro, M.J., Zubilaga, M.B., Lysionek, A.E., Caro, R.A., Weill, R. and Boccio, J.R. (2002) The Role of Zinc in the Growth and Development of Children. Nutrition, 18, 510-519.
[29] DellaVallea, D.M., Thavarajahb, D., Thavarajah, P., Vandenbergc, A. and Glahna, R.P. (2013) Lentil (Lens culinaris L.) as a Candidate Crop for Iron Biofortification: Is There Genetic Potential for Iron Bioavailability? Field Crops Research, 144, 119-125.
[30] Mindel, E. (2000) Vitaminová bible pro 21. století. Euromedia Group, Knizní klub, Prague.
[31] Spill, M.K., Birch, L.L., Roe, L.S. and Rolls, B.J. (2011) Serving Large Portions of Vegetable Soup at the Start of a Meal Affected Children’s Energy and Vegetable Intake. Appetite, 57, 213-219.
[32] Bilgicli, N., Elgün, A., Nur Herken, E., Türkera, S., Ertasa, N. and Ibanogˇlu, S. (2006) Effect of Wheat Germ/Bran Addition on the Chemical, Nutritional and Sensory Quality of Tarhana, a Fermented Wheat Flour-Yoghurt Product. Journal of Food Engineering, 77, 680-686.
[33] Boye, J., Zare, F. and Pletch, A. (2010) Pulse Proteins: Processing, Characterization, Functional Properties and Applications in Food and Feed. Food Research International, 43, 414-431.
[34] Clemente, A., Shanchez-Vioque, R., Vioque, J., Bautistab, J. and Millin, F. (1998) Effect of Cooking on Protein Quality of Chickpea (Cicer arietinrum) Seeds. Food Chemistry, 62, 1-6.
[35] Gargallo, S., Calsamiglia, S. and Ferret, A. (2006) Technical Note: A Modified Three-Step in Vitro Procedure to Determine Intestinal Digestion of Proteins. Journal of Animal Science, 84, 2163-2167.
[36] Vijayaraghavan, K. (1981) Pulses Nutritional Considerations, Grain Legumes: Agronomy and Crop Improvement Processing and Storage, Marketing and Nutrition. Proceedings of the Workshop, New Delhi, January 1981, 115.
[37] Luo, Y., Xie, W. and Cui, Q. (2010) Effects of Phytase, Cellulase, and Dehulling Treatments on Iron and Zinc in Vitro Solubility in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Flour and Legume Fractions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 2483-2490.
[38] Sandstrom, B. (1992) Dose Dependence of Zinc and Manganese Absorption in Man. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 51, 211-218.
[39] Hemalatha, S., Platel, K. and Srinivasan, K. (2007) Bioavailability. Influence of Heat Processing on the Bioaccessibility of Zinc and Iron from Cereals and Pulses Consumed in India. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 21, 1-7.
[40] Roos, Y.H. (1997) Water in Milk Products. In: Fox, F.P., Ed., Advanced Dairy Chemistry: Lactose, Water, Salts and Vitamins, 2nd Edition, Vol. 3, Chapter 8, UCC, Ireland, 303-346.
[41] Chirife, J., Buera, M. and Labuza, T.P. (1996) Water Activity, Water Glass Dynamics and the Control of Microbiological Growth in Foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 36, 465-513.
[42] Sunyoto, M. and Futiawati, R. (2012) The Influence of Full Cream Milk Powder Concentration on the Characteristics of “Rasi” Instant Cream Soup. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 2, 1218-1231.
[43] Hall, G.M. (1997) Methods of Testing Protein Functionality. Blackie Academic and Professional, London, Tokyo, and New York, 187-189.
[44] Kilcast, D. and Subramaniam, P. (2000) The Stability and Shelf-Life of Food. Woodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Washington DC.
[45] Raitio, R., Orlien, V. and Skibsted, L.H. (2011) Storage Stability of Cauliflower Soup Powder: The Effect of Lipid Oxidation and Protein Degradation Reactions. Food Chemistry, 128, 371-379.
[46] Bonazzi, C. and Dumoulin, E. (2011) Quality Changes in Food Materials as Influenced by Drying Processes. In: Tsotsas, E. and Mujumdar, A.S., Eds., Product Quality and Formulation, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Vol. 3, Chapter 1.
[47] Eskin, N.A.M. and Rebinson, D.S. (2001) Food Shelf Life Stability. CRC Press, Washington, 5-28.
[48] Fellows, P. (2000) Processing Technology Principles and Practice. 2nd Edition, Woodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press LLC, Washington DC.
[49] Sudha, M.L., Eipson, S.W., Khanum, H., Madhava Naidu, M. and Venkateswara Rao, G. (2013) Effect of Normal/Dehydrated Greens on the Rheological, Microstructural, Nutritional and Quality Characteristics of paratha—An Indian Flat Bread. Journal of Food Science and Technology, Published Online June 2013, Springer.
[50] Ibanoglu, S. and Ibanoglu, E. (1998) Rheological Characterization of Some Traditional Turkish Soups. Journal of Food Engineering, 35, 251-256.
[51] Antonio, G.C., Faria, F.R., Takeiti, C.Y. and Park, K.J. (2009) Rheological Behavior of Blueberry. Ciênc Tecnology Aliment Campinas, 29, 732-737.
[52] Ikegwu, O.J., Oledinma, N.U., Nwobasi, V.N. and Alaka, I.C. (2009) Effect of Processing Time and Some Additives on the Apparent Viscosity of “Achi” Brachystegia eurycoma Flour. Journal of Food Technology, 7, 34-37.
[53] Abeysinghe, C.P. and Illepruma, C.K. (2006) Formulation of an MSG (Monosodium Glutamate) Free Instant Vegetable Soup Mix. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 34, 91-95.
[54] Dawkins, N.L. and Nnanna, I.A. (1995) Studies on Oat Gum [(1→3, 1→4)-β-D-glucan]: Composition, Molecular Weight Estimation and Rheological Properties. Food Hydrocolloids, 9, 1-7.
[55] Lyly, M., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., Suortti, T., Autio, K., Poutanen, K. and Lahteenmaki, L. (2004) The Sensory Characteristics and Rheological Properties of Soups Containing Oat and Barley β-Glucan before and after Freezing. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 37, 749-761.
[56] Jokic, S., Mujic, I., Martinov, M., Velic, D., Bilic, M. and Lukinac, J. (2009) Influence of Drying Procedure on Colour and Rehydration Characteristic of Wild Asparagus. Czech Journal of Food Science, 27, 171-177.
[57] Velic, D., Planinic, M., Tomas, S. and Bilic, M. (2004) Influence of Airflow Velocity on Kinetics of Convection Apple Drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 64, 97-102.
[58] Lewicki, P.P. (1998) Some Remarks on Rehydration of Dried Foods. Journal of Food Engineering, 36, 81-87.
[59] Sanjuan, N., Simal, S., Bon, J. and Mulet, A. (1999) Modelling of Broccoli Stems Rehydration Process. Journal of Food Engineering, 42, 27-31.
[60] García-Pascual, P., Sanjuán, N., Melis, R. and Mulet, A. (2006) Morchella esculenta (Morel) Rehydration Process Modeling. Journal of Food Engineering, 72, 346-353.
[61] Kramer, A. and Twigg, B.A. (1974) Quality Control for the Food Industry. 3rd Edition, AVI. Inc., Westport.
[62] Singh-Ackbarali, D. and Maharaj, R. (2014) Sensory Evaluation as a Tool in Determining Acceptability of Innovative Products Developed by Undergraduate Students in Food Science and Technology at the University of Trinidad and Tobago. Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, 3, 10-27.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.