Effects of Post-Training Blockade of GABAB Receptor on Memory of Food Location and Expression of Synapsin I in the Hippocampus of Pigeons (Columba livia)

DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.412055   PDF   HTML   XML   8,398 Downloads   8,958 Views  


This study investigated effects of post-training treatment with phaclofen, GABAB receptor antagonist, on the memory of food location and on the expression of Synapsin I in the hippocampus of pigeons. Pigeons were trained in food location (7 sessions) and underwent post-training treatment with phaclofen (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.; PHAC), saline (SAL) or non-treated (NTR). Testing for memory persistence occurred 7 days after the last training session (PHACR, SALR and NTRR Groups). Pigeons treated with phaclofen had lower latency and higher correct choice values than saline and non-treated controls (p < 0.05). Analysis of hippocampus tissue indicated that Synapsin I-positive cell counts were higher in pigeons treated with phaclofen than in saline and non-treated controls (p < 0.05). Data indicated enhancement of consolidation and persistence of food location memory, and up-regulation of Synapsin I expression in the hippocampus of pigeons, which were related with post-training blockade of GABAB receptors.

Share and Cite:

Canova, F. , Faria, R. and de Moraes Ferrari, E. (2014) Effects of Post-Training Blockade of GABAB Receptor on Memory of Food Location and Expression of Synapsin I in the Hippocampus of Pigeons (Columba livia). Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 4, 579-589. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.412055.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Eichenbaum, H., Otto, T. and Cohen, N.J. (1992) The Hippocampus—What Does It Do? Behavioral and Neural Biology, 7, 2-36.
[2] Mayer, U., Watanabe, S. and Bischof, H.J. (2013) Spatial Memory and the Avian Hippocampus: Research in Zebra Finches. Journal of Physiology, 107, 2-12.
[3] Kandel, E.R. (2001) The Molecular Biology of Memory Storage: A Dialogue between Genes and Synapses. Science, 294, 1030-1038.
[4] Bowery, N.G. (2010) Historical Perspective and Emergence of the GABAB Receptor. Advances in Pharmacology, 58, 1-18.
[5] Mott, D.D. and Lewis, D.V. (1994) The Pharmacology and Function of Central GABAB Receptors. International Review of Neurobiology, 36, 97-223.
[6] Karten, H.J. and Hodos, W. (1967) A Stereotaxic Atlas of the Brain of the Pigeon (Columba livia). The Johns Hophins Press, Baltimore.
[7] Castellano, C., Cabib, S. and Puglisi-Allegra, S. (1996) Psychopharmacology of Memory Modulation: Evidence for Multiple Interaction among Neurotransmitters and Hormones. Behavioural Brain Research, 77, 1-21.
[8] Rapanelli, M., Frick, L.R. and Zanutto, B.S. (2009) Differential Gene Expression in the Rat Hippocampus during Learning of an Operant Conditioning Task. Neuroscience, 163, 1031-1038.
[9] Mohler, H., Fritschy, J.M., Crestani, F., Hensch, T. and Rudolph, U. (2004) Specific GABA(A) Circuits in Brain Development and Therapy. Biochemical Pharmacology, 68, 1685-1690.
[10] Mondadori, C., Buerki, H., Borkowski, J., Radeke, E., Ducret, T. and Glatt, A. (1992) CGS 5649 B, a New Compound, Reverses Age-Related Cognitive Dysfunctions in Rats. Behavioral and Neural Biology, 57, 149-156.
[11] Nakagawa, Y. and Takashima, T. (1997) The GABAB Receptor Antagonist CGP36742 Attenuates the Baclofen- and Scopolamine-Induced Deficit in Morris Water Maze Task in Rats. Brain Research, 766, 101-106.
[12] Sunyer, B., Shim, K.S., An, G., Hoger, H. and Lubec, G. (2009) Hippocampal Levels of Phosphorylated Protein Kinase A (Phosphor-S96) Are Linked to Spatial Memory Enhancement by SGS742. Hippocampus, 19, 90-98.
[13] Froestl, W., Gallagher, M., Jenkins, H., Madrid, A., Melcher, T., Teichman, S., Mondadori, C.G. and Pearlman, R. (2004) SGS742: The First GABAB Receptor Antagonist in Clinical Trials. Biochemical Pharmacology, 68, 1479-1487.
[14] Gómez-Pinilla, F., So, V. and Kesslak, J.P. (2001) Spatial Learning Induces Neurotrophin Receptor and Synapsin I in the Hippocampus. Brain Research, 904, 13-19.
[15] Güntürkün, O. (2012) The Convergent Evolution of Neural Substrates for Cognition. Psychological Research, 76, 212-219.
[16] Corradi, A., Zanardi, A., Giacomini, C., Onofri, F., Valtorta, F., Zoli, M. and Benfenati, F. (2008) Synapsin-I- and Synapsin-II-Null Mice Display an Increased Age-Dependent Cognitive Impairment. Journal of Cell Science, 121, 3042-3051.
[17] Jovanovic, J.N., Czernik, A.J., Fienberg, A.A., Greengard, P. and Sihra, T.S. (2000) Synapsins as Mediators of BDNF- Enhanced Neurotransmitter Release. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 323-329.
[18] Melloni Jr., R.H., Apostolides, P.J., Hamos, J.E. and De Gennaro, L.J. (1994) Dynamics of Synapsin I Gene Expression during the Establishment and Restoration of Functional Synapses in the Rat Hippocampus. Neuroscience, 58, 683-703.
[19] Amaral-Toma, M. and Ferrari, E.A.M. (2004) Effects of Hippocampal Lesions in a Food Location Task in Pigeons. Behavioral Brain Research, 148, 21-34.
[20] Kahn, M.C. and Bingman, V.P. (2009) Avian Hippocampal Role in Space and Content Memory. European Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 1900-1908.
[21] Colombo, M. and Broadbent, N. (2000) Is the Avian Hippocampus a Functional Homologue of the Mammalian Hippocampus? Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 465-484.
[22] Fremouw, T., Jackson-Smith, P. and Kesner, R.P. (1997) Impaired Place Learning and Unimpaired Cue Learning in Hippocampal-Lesioned Pigeons. Behavioral Neuroscience, 11, 963-975.
[23] Watanabe, S. and Bischof, H.J. (2012) Spatial Cognition of Zebra Finches in a Morris-Maze Analogue Apparatus. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 25, 276-284.
[24] Faria, R.S., Sartori, C.R., Canova, F. and Ferrari, E.A.M. (2013) Classical Aversive Conditioning Induces Increased Expression of Mature-BDNF in the Hippocampus and Amygdala of Pigeons. Neuroscience, 255, 122-133.
[25] Brito, I., Britto, L.R.G. and Ferrari, E.A.M. (2006) Classical Tone-Shock Conditioning Induces Zenk Expression in the Pigeon (Columba livia) Hippocampus. Behavioral Neuroscience, 120, 353-361.
[26] Atoji, Y. and Wild, J.M. (2006) Anatomy of the Avian Hippocampal Formation. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 17, 3-15.
[27] John, J.P., Sunyer, B., Hoger, H., Pollak, A. and Lubec, G. (2009) Hippocampal Synapsin Isoform Levels Are Linked to Spatial Memory Enhancement by SGS742. Hippocampus, 19, 731-778.
[28] Cullen, P.K., Dulka, B.N., Ortiz, S., Riccio, D.C. and Jasnow, A.M. (2014) GABA-Mediated Presynaptic Inhibition Is Required for Precision of Long-Term Memory. Learning & Memory, 21, 180-184.
[29] Erichsen, J.T., Bingman, V.P. and Krebs, J.R. (1991) The Distribution of Neuropeptides in the Dorsomedial Telencephalon of the Pigeon (Columba livia): A Basis for Regional Subdivisions. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 314, 478-492.
[30] Herold, C., Bingman, V.P., Strockens, F., Letzner, S., Sauvage, M., Palomero-Gallagher, N., Zilles, K. and Güntürkün, O. (2014) Distribution of Neurotransmitter Receptors and Zinc in the Pigeon (Columba livia) Hippocampal Formation: A Basis for Further Comparison with the Mammalian Hippocampus. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 522, 2553-2575.
[31] Kahn, M.C., Hough II, G.E., Eyck, G.R.T. and Bingman, V.P. (2003) Internal Connectivity of the Homing Pigeons (Columba livia) Hippocampal Formation: An Anterograde and Retrograde Tracer Study. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 459, 127-141.
[32] Kushner, S.A., Elgersma, Y., Murphy, G.G., Jaarsma, D., van Woerden, G.M., Hojjati, M.R., Cui, Y., Le Boutillier, J.C., Marrone, D.F., Choi, E.S., De Zeeuw, C.I., Petit, T.L., Pozzo-Miller, L. and Silva, A.J. (2005) Modulation of Presynaptic Plasticity and Learning by the H-Ras/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase/Synapsin I Signaling Pathway. The Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 9721-9734.
[33] Rosinha, M.U., Ferrari, E.A. and Toledo, C.A. (2009) Immunohistochemical Distribution of AMPA-Type Label in the Pigeon (C. livia) Hippocampus. Neuroscience, 159, 438-450.
[34] Hyland, N.P. and Cryan, J.F. (2010) A Gut Feeling about GABA: Focus on GABAB Receptors. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 1, 124.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.