Organotin Compounds in Sediments of Northern Lakes, Egypt


This pioneered study is aimed to determine the levels and distributions of organotin compounds (OTCs) in sediment samples collected from five Egyptian lakes located in the southern-eastern Mediterranean Sea. The paper has given an account of and the reasons for the widespread distribution of Tributyltin (TBT) in northern lakes. The percentage of TBT ranged from 4% - 100% OTC revealing recent inputs of TBT. The highest average of TBT (2.84 μg/g Sn dry wt) was measured in lake Edku. Dibutyltin (DBT) was observed at most sampled sites. Relatively higher abundance of DBT was observed in sediments of EL-Burullus (0.69 μg/g Sn dry wt). One of most significant findings to emerge from this study is the absence of any strong and significant correlation between TBT and DBT in sediments from five northern lakes. The absence of such correlation might give a clear evidence that both compounds did not come from the same source. The observed OTC levels indicate some highly localized areas of contamination which are severe enough to cause harmful effects on marine flora and fauna. Except for El-Burllus, Triphenyltin (TPhT) was not measured in sediments of most stations. TPhT was the predominant species in El-Burullus, which indicate a source of pollution mostly originated from industrial and agricultural waste water discharge, organic wastes, commercial fertilizers, chemical wastes and pesticides. The percentages of OTC to total tin ranged from 1% to 35%. El-Brullus, Edku and El-Bardaweel exhibited the highest percentages. As a result of lack of enforcement on the control of OTC, the study has thrown up many questions need further detailed environmental assessment of OTC.

Share and Cite:

Shreadah, M. , Ghani, S. , Hawash, H. , Samie, A. and Ahmed, A. (2014) Organotin Compounds in Sediments of Northern Lakes, Egypt. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 1654-1666. doi: 10.4236/jep.2014.517156.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Blunden, S.J. and Chapman, A. (1984) In: Craig, P.J., Ed., Organometalic Compounds in the Environment. Principals and Reaction, Longman, Essex, 111.
[2] HSDB (2003) Environmental Standards and Regulations of Tin. National Library of Medicine, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Bethesda.
[3] Alzieu, C., Michel, P., Tolosa, I., Bacci, E., Mee, L.D. and Readman, J.W. (1991) Organotin Compounds in the Medite. Rranean: A Containing Cause for Concern. Marine Environmental Research, 32, 261-270.
[4] Shiryaev, V.I. and Storozhenko, P.A. (2012) Application of Organotin Compounds for Protecting Wood and Other Materials and in Nonfouling Paints. Polymer Science, Series D, Glues and Sealing Materials, 5, 221-230.
[5] Almeida, A.C., Wagener, A.L.R., Maia, C.B. and Miekeley, N. (2004) Speciation of Organotin Compounds in Sediment Cores from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) by Gaschromatography-Pulsed Flame Photometric Detection. Applied Organometallic Chemistry, 18, 694-704.
[6] Maguire, R.J. (1996) The Occurrence, Fate and Toxicity of Tributyltin and Its Degradation Products in Fresh Water Environments. NWRI Contribution No. 94-106, National Water Research Institute, Canada.
[7] Alzieu, C. (1998) Tributyl Tin: Case Study of a Chronic Contaminant in the Coastal Environment. Ocean Coastal Management, 40, 23-36.
[8] Díez, S., Lacorte, S., Viana, P., Barcelo, D. and Bayona, J.M. (2005) Survey of Organotin Compounds in Rivers and Coastal Environments in Portugal 1999-2000. Environmental Pollution, 136, 525-536.
[9] Buggy, C.J. and Tobin, J.M. (2006) Seasonal and Spatial Distributions of Tributyltin in Surface Sediment of the Tolka Estuary. Dublin, Ireland. Environmental Pollution, 143, 294-303.
[10] Hoch, M., Jacinto, A.A. and Martin, L. (2003) Assessment of Adsorption Behavior of Dibutyltin (DBT) to Clay-Rich Sediments in Comparison to the Highly Toxic Tributyltin (TBT). Environmental Pollution, 123, 217-227.
[11] HSE (1992) A Review of the Environment Effects of Triorganotin Compounds. Health and Safety Executive, Pesticide Registration Section, Advisory Committee on Pesticide, Report No. 111, Merseyside, 42.
[12] Biselli, S., Bester, K., HUhnerfuss, H. and Fent, K. (2000) Concentrations of the Antifouling Compound Irgarol 1051 and of Organotins in Water and Sediments of German North and Baltic Sea Marinas. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40, 233-243.
[13] Fent, K. and Meier, W. (1994) Effects of Triphenyltin on Fish Early Life Stages. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 27, 224-231.
[14] Paton, G.I., Cheewasedtham, W., Marr, I.L. and Dawson, J.J.C. (2006) Degradation and Toxicity of Phenyltin Compounds in Soil. Environmental Pollution, 144, 746-751.
[15] Said, T.O., Farag, R.S., Younis, A.M. and Shreadah, M.A. (2006) Organotin Species in Fish and Bivalves Samples Collected from the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast of Alexandria, Egypt. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 77, 451-458.
[16] Shreadah, M.A., Said, T.O., Younis, A.M. and Farag, R.S. (2006) Speciation of Organotin Compounds in Sediments of Semi-Closed Areas along the Mediterranean Coast of Alexandria. Chemistry and Ecology, 22, 395-404.
[17] Said, T.O., Shreadah, M.A., Abdelel Ghani, S.A. and Ahmed, A.M. (2010) Alkyltin and Alkayllead Compounds in Coastal Water of Suez Gulf, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 36, 33-42.
[18] Hoch, M. (2001) Organotin Compounds in the Environment—An Overview. Applied Geochemistry, 16, 719-743.
[19] Said, T.O., Moselhy, K.M., Rashad, A.M. and Shreadah, M.A. (2008) Organochlorine Contaminants in Water, Sediment and Fish of Lake Burullus, Egyptian Mediterranean Sea. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 81, 136-146.
[20] Shreadah, M.A., Said, T.O., Abdel Ghani, S.A. and Ahmed, A.M. (2008) Alkyllead and Alkyltin Species in Different Fishes Collected from the Suez Gulf, Egypt. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Aquatic Research, Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 34, 64-73.
[21] Abdel Ghani, S.A., Shobier, A.H., Said, T.O. and Shreadah, M.A. (2011) Organotin Compounds in Egyptian Mediterranean Sediments. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Resources, 36, 221-229.
[22] Van der Linde, D. (1998) Protocol for Total Suspended Matter Estimate. JRC Technical Note.
[23] Strickland, J.D.H. and Parsons, T.R. (1975) A Practical Hand Book of Seawater Analysis. Bulletin Fisheries Research, Ottawa.
[24] FAO (1976) Mannual of Methods in Aquatic Environmental Research, Part I: Permanganate Value (Oxidiability) of Organic Matter in Natural Waters. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, Vol. 137, 169-174.
[25] UNEP/IAEA (1986) References Methods for Marine Pollution Studies, Vol. 39. United Nations Environment Programme/The International Atomic Energy Agency.
[26] MUller, D. (1987) Comprehensive Trace Level Determination of Organotin Compounds in Environmental Samples Using High-Resolution Gas Chromatography with Flame Photometric Detection. Analytical Chemistry, 59, 617-623.
[27] Tsuda, T., Nakanishi, H., Aoki, S. and Takebayashi, J. (1987) Determination of Butyltin and Phenyltin Compounds in Biological and Sediment Samples by Electron-Capture Gas Chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 387, 361-370.
[28] Shriadah, M.A. (1991) Recent Observations on Some Hydrographic and Chemical Aspects of Lake Edku Waters, Egypt. Bulletin of the High Institute of Public Health, 22, 185-201.
[29] Shriadah, M.A. and Tayel, F.T. (1992) Impacts of Industrial, Sewage and Agricultural Effluents on Lake Edku and Abu-Qir Bay. Bulletin Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, 32, 103-155.
[30] Shriadah, M.A. and Okbah, M.A. (2003) Speciation of Iron, Manganese, Copper and Zinc in Sediments of Lake Burullus, Egypt. A. M. S. E. (France), 64, 49-61.
[31] Shreadah, M.A., Abdel Ghani, S.A., Abd El Samie, A., Ahmed, A.M. and Hawash, H.B.I. (2012) Mercury and Methyl Mercury in Sediments of Northern Lakes-Egypt. Journal of Environmental Protection, 3, 254-261.
[32] Khalil, M.Kh., El Zokm, G.M., Fahmy, M.A., Said, T.O. and Shreadah, M.A. (2013) Geochemistry of Some Major and Trace Elements in Sediments of Edku and Mariut Lakes, North, Egypt. World Applied Sciences Journal, 24, 282-294.
[33] ANZECC and ARMCANZ (2000) Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality. Australian and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australian and New Zealand, Canberra.
[34] Dowson, P.H., Bubb, J.M. and Lester, J.N. (1993) Temporal Distribution of Organotins in the Aquatic Environment: Five Years after the 1987 UK Retail Ban on TBT Based Antifouling Paints. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 26, 487-494.
[35] Page, D.S., Ozbal, C.C. and Lanphear, M.E. (1996) Concentration of Butyltin Species in Sediments Associated with Shipyard Activity. Environmental Pollution, 91, 237-243.
[36] Axiak, V., Vella, A.J., Agius, D., Bonnici, P., Cassar, G., Cassone, R., Chircop, P., Micallef, D., Mintoff, B. and Sammut, M. (2000) Evaluation of Environmental Levels and Biological Impact of TBT in Malta (Central Mediterranean). Science of the Total Environment, 258, 89-97.
[37] Ritsema, R., de Smaele, T., Moens, L., de Jong, A.S. and Donard, O.F.X. (1998) Determination of Butyltins in Harbor Sediment and Water by Aqueous Phase Ethylation GC-ICP-MS and Hydride Generation GC-AAS. Environmental Pollution, 99, 271-277.
[38] Harino, H., Yamamoto, Y., Eguchi, S., Kawai, S., Kurokawa, Y., Arai, T., Ohji, M., Okamura, H. and Miyazaki, N. (2007) Concentrations of Antifouling Biocides in Sediment and Mussel Samples Collected from Otsuchi Bay, Japan. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 52, 179-188.
[39] Diez, S., Jover, E., Albaiges, J. and Bayona, J.M. (2006) Occurrence and Degradation of Butyltins and Waster Marker Compounds in Sediments from Barcelona Harbor, Spain. Environment International, 32, 858-865.
[40] Diez, S., Abalos, M. and Bayona, J.M. (2002) Organotin Contamination in Sediments from the Western Mediterranean Enclosures Following 10 Years of TBT Regulation. Water Research, 36, 905-918.
[41] Yozukmazl, A., Sunlu, F.S., Sunlu, U. and Ozsuer, M. (2011) The Determination of Organotin Compounds Levels in Sediment Samples from Turkish Aegean Sea Coast. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 11, 649-660.
[42] Scrimshaw, M.D., Wahlen, R., Catterick, T. and Lester, J.N. (2005) Butyltin Compounds in a Sediment Core from the Old Tilbury Basin, London, UK. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50, 1500-1507.
[43] Uveges, M., Rodríguez-González, P., García Alonso, J.I., Sanz-Medel, A. and Fodor, P. (2007) Isotope Dilution Analysis Mass Spectrometry for the Routine Measurement of Butyltin Compounds in Marine Environmental and Biological Samples. Microchemical Journal, 85, 115-121.
[44] Gomez-Ariza, J.L., Beltrán, R., Morales, E., Giraldez, I. and Ruiz-Benitez, M. (1995) Acid Extraction Treatment of Sediment Samples for Organotin Speciation; Occurrence of Butyltin and Phenyltin Compounds on the Cadiz Coast, South-West Spain. Applied Organometallic Chemistry, 9, 51-64.
[45] Verslycke, T.A., Vethaak, A.D., Arijs, K. and Janssen, C.R. (2005) Flame Retardants, Surfactants and Organotins in Sediment and Mysid Shrimp of the Scheldt Estuary (The Netherlands). Environmental Pollution, 136, 19-31.
[46] Tolosa, I., Bayona, J.M., Albaiges, J., Merlini, L. and De Bertrand, N. (1992) Occurrence and Fate of Tributyl- and Triphenyltin Compounds in Western Mediterranean Coastal Enclosures. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 11, 145-155.
[47] Shreadah, M.A., Said, T.O., Abd El Ghani, S.A. and Ahmed, A.M. (2011) Distribution of Different Organotin and Organolead Compounds in Sediment of the Gulf of Suez. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2, 545-554.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.