Organotin Compounds in Sediments of Northern Lakes, Egypt

DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.517156   PDF   HTML   XML   2,642 Downloads   3,182 Views   Citations


This pioneered study is aimed to determine the levels and distributions of organotin compounds (OTCs) in sediment samples collected from five Egyptian lakes located in the southern-eastern Mediterranean Sea. The paper has given an account of and the reasons for the widespread distribution of Tributyltin (TBT) in northern lakes. The percentage of TBT ranged from 4% - 100% OTC revealing recent inputs of TBT. The highest average of TBT (2.84 μg/g Sn dry wt) was measured in lake Edku. Dibutyltin (DBT) was observed at most sampled sites. Relatively higher abundance of DBT was observed in sediments of EL-Burullus (0.69 μg/g Sn dry wt). One of most significant findings to emerge from this study is the absence of any strong and significant correlation between TBT and DBT in sediments from five northern lakes. The absence of such correlation might give a clear evidence that both compounds did not come from the same source. The observed OTC levels indicate some highly localized areas of contamination which are severe enough to cause harmful effects on marine flora and fauna. Except for El-Burllus, Triphenyltin (TPhT) was not measured in sediments of most stations. TPhT was the predominant species in El-Burullus, which indicate a source of pollution mostly originated from industrial and agricultural waste water discharge, organic wastes, commercial fertilizers, chemical wastes and pesticides. The percentages of OTC to total tin ranged from 1% to 35%. El-Brullus, Edku and El-Bardaweel exhibited the highest percentages. As a result of lack of enforcement on the control of OTC, the study has thrown up many questions need further detailed environmental assessment of OTC.

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Shreadah, M. , Ghani, S. , Hawash, H. , Samie, A. and Ahmed, A. (2014) Organotin Compounds in Sediments of Northern Lakes, Egypt. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 1654-1666. doi: 10.4236/jep.2014.517156.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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