Improved Gasification of Rice Husks for Optimized Biochar Production in a Top Lit Updraft Gasifier

DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2014.44021   PDF   HTML   XML   4,434 Downloads   5,607 Views   Citations

Abstract

Biochar is a solid material obtained from the carbonization of biomass. If properly produced, it is useful for soil application to enrich plant values. Rice husk (RH) waste, an abundant agricultural by-product, was gasified in a top-lit updraft Belonio rice husk gasifier with a biochar yield of 29.0% ± 1.9%. The equivalence ratio (ER) for optimum biochar production was identified and its effect on biochar properties such as pH, volatile matter (VM), fixed carbon (FC) and ash content (AC), electricity consumption, biochar yield, specific gasification rate (SGR) as well as reactor temperature investigated and statistically analyzed. As ER increased from 0.292 ± 0.005 to 0.442 ± 0.016, the SGR decreased from 85.4 ± 4.5 kg/(m2hr) to 51.6 ± 2.4 kg/(m2hr) whereas reactor temperature increased linearly with ER. The original VM content of RH was found to be 76.1% ± 1.2% and decreased with increasing ER from 14.1% ± 0.2% to 10.6% ± 0.3%. The original FC and AC of 5.49% ± 0.22% and 9.10% ± 1.23% increased with ER from 50.5% ± 0.7% to 51.3% ± 0.4% and 33.7% ± 0.4% to 36.7% ± 0.1% respectively. The biochar pH at low, medium and high ER was 9.36 ± 0.11, 9.64 ± 0.03 and 9.42 ± 0.01, respectively. Results revealed a significant change in biochar yield and proximate values as ER changes from low to high.

Share and Cite:

Nsamba, H. , Hale, S. , Cornelissen, G. and Bachmann, R. (2014) Improved Gasification of Rice Husks for Optimized Biochar Production in a Top Lit Updraft Gasifier. Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems, 4, 225-242. doi: 10.4236/jsbs.2014.44021.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Verheijen, F., Jeffery, S., Bastos, A.C. and van der Velde, M. (2009) Biochar Application to Soils—A Critical Scientific Review of Effects on Soil Properties, Processes and Functions. Office for the Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxemburg, 149.
[2] Lehmann, J. (2007) Bio-Energy in the Black. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5, 381-387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2007)5[381:BITB]2.0.CO;2
[3] Duku, M.H., Gu, S. and Hagan, E.B. (2011) Biochar Production Potential in Ghana—A Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15, 3539-3551. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.05.010
[4] Amonette, J. and Joseph, S. (2009) Characteristics of Biochar: Micro-Chemical Properties. In: Lehmann, J. and Joseph, S., Eds., Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology, Earthscan, London, 33-52.
[5] Tye, Y.Y., Lee, K.T., Wan Abdullah, W.N. and Leh, C.P. (2011) Second-Generation Bioethanol as a Sustainable Energy Source in Malaysia Transportation Sector: Status, Potential and Future Prospects. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15, 4521-4536.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.099
[6] Mekhilef, S., Saidur, R., Safari, A. and Mustaffa, W.E.S.B. (2011) Biomass Energy in Malaysia: Current State and Prospects. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15, 3360-3370.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.04.016
[7] Shafie, S.M., Mahlia, T.M.I., Masjuki, H.H. and Ahmad-Yazid, A. (2012) A Review on Electricity Generation Based on Biomass Residue in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16, 5879-5889. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.06.031
[8] Ng, W.P.Q., Lam, H.L., Ng, F.Y., Kamal, M. and Lim, J.H.E. (2012) Waste-to-Wealth: Green Potential from Palm Biomass in Malaysia. Journal of Cleaner Production, 34, 57-65.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.04.004
[9] Cheng, G., Li, Q., Qi, F., Xiao, B., Liu, S. and Hu, Z.P.H. (2012) Allothermal Gasification of Biomass Using Micron Size Biomass as External Heat Source. Bioresource Technology, 107, 471-475.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.12.074
[10] Apaydin-Varol, E. and Pütün, A.E. (2012) Preparation and Characterization of Pyrolytic Chars from Different Biomass Samples. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 98, 29-36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2012.07.001
[11] ASTM D1762-84 (2013) Standard Test Method for Chemical Analysis of Wood Charcoal. ASTM International, West Conshohocken. http://www.astm.org/Standards/D1762.htm
[12] FAO (1983) Simple Technologies for Charcoal Making. FAO Forestry Paper 41, Rome, ISBN 92-5-101328-1. http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5328e/x5328e00.HTM
[13] Zainal, Z.A., Rifau, A., Quadir, G.A. and Seetharamu, K.N. (2002) Experimental Investigation of a Downdraft Biomass Gasifier. Biomass and Bioenergy, 23, 283-289.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0961-9534(02)00059-4
[14] Belonio, A.T. (2005) Rice Husk Gas Stove Handbook. Appropriate Technology Center, Department of Agricultural Engineering and Environmental Management College of Agriculture, Central Philippine University, Iloilo City.
[15] Maiti, S., Dey, S., Purakayastha, S. and Ghosh, B. (2006) Physical and Thermochemical Characterization of Rice Husk Char as a Potential Biomass Energy Source. Bioresource Technology, 97, 2065-2070. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.10.005
[16] Tiangco, V.M., Jenkins, B.M. and Goss, J.R. (1996) Optimum Specific Gasification Rate for Static Bed Rice Hull Gasifiers. Biomass and Bioenergy, 11, 51-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0961-9534(95)00110-7
[17] Permchart, W. and Kouprianov, V.I. (2004) Emission Performance and Combustion Efficiency of a Conical Fluidized-Bed Combustor Firing Various Biomass Fuels. Bioresource Technology, 92, 83-91.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2003.07.005
[18] Wannapeera, J., Worasuwannarak, N. and Pipatmanomai, S. (2008) Product Yields and Characteristics of Rice Husk, Rice Straw and Corncob during Fast Pyrolysis in a Drop-Tube/Fixed-Bed Reactor. Songklanakarin Journal of Science & Technology, 30, 393-404.
[19] Guerrero, M., Ruiz, M.P., Millera, á., Alzueta, M.U. and Bilbao, R. (2008) Characterization of Biomass Chars Formed under Different Devolatilization Conditions: Differences between Rice Husk and Eucalyptus. Energy & Fuels, 22, 1275-1284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef7005589
[20] Raveendran, K., Ganesh, A. and Khilar, K.C. (1995) Influence of Mineral Matter on Biomass Pyrolysis Characteristics. Fuel, 74, 1812-1822. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(95)80013-8
[21] Fu, P., Yi, W., Bai, X., Li, Z., Hu, S. and Xiang, J. (2011) Effect of Temperature on Gas Composition and Char Structural Features of Pyrolyzed Agricultural Residues. Bioresource Technology, 102, 8211-8219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.05.083
[22] Peterson, S.C. and Jackson, M. (2014) Simplifying Pyrolysis: Using Gasification to Produce Corn Stover and Wheat Straw Biochar for Sorptive and Horticultural Media. Industrial Crops and Products, 53, 228-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.12.028
[23] Downie, A., Munroe, P., Cowie, A., Van Zwieten, L. and Lau, D.M.S. (2012) Biochar as a Geoengineering Climate Solution: Hazard Identification and Risk Management. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 42, 225-250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2010.507980
[24] Lua, A.C., Yang, T. and Guo, J. (2004) Effects of Pyrolysis Conditions on the Properties of Activated Carbons Prepared from Pistachio-Nut Shells. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 72, 279-287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2004.08.001
[25] Mukome, F.N.D., Zhang, X., Silva, L.C.R., Six, J. and Parikh, S.J. (2013) Use of Chemical and Physical Characteristics to Investigate Trends in Biochar Feedstocks. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61, 2196-2204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf3049142
[26] Wiedner, K., Rumpel, C., Steiner, C., Pozzi, A., Maas, R. and Glaser, B. (2013) Chemical Evaluation of Chars Produced by Thermochemical Conversion (Gasification, Pyrolysis and Hydrothermal Carbonization) of Agro-Industrial Biomass on a Commercial Scale. Biomass and Bioenergy, 59, 264-278.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.08.026
[27] Manyà, J.J., Ortigosa, M.A., Laguarta, S. and Manso, J.A. (2014) Experimental Study on the Effect of Pyrolysis Pressure, Peak Temperature, and Particle Size on the Potential Stability of Vine Shoots-Derived Biochar. Fuel, 133, 163- 172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.05.019
[28] http://www.biochar-international.org/sites/default/files/IBI_Biochar_Standards_V2.0_final.pdf
[29] Ryu, C., Yang, Y.B., Khor, A., Yates, N.E., Sharifi, V.N. and Swithenbank, J. (2006) Effect of Fuel Properties on Biomass Combustion: Part I. Experiments—Fuel Type, Equivalence Ratio and Particle Size. Fuel, 85, 1039-1046. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2005.09.019
[30] Zhang, Y.N., Li, B.X., Li, H.T. and Liu, H. (2011) Thermodynamic Evaluation of Biomass Gasification with Air in Autothermal Gasifiers. Thermochimica Acta, 519, 65-71.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2011.03.005
[31] Najdat, S. (2014) Gasification of Pine Wood Chips with Air-Steam in Fluidized Bed. Doctoral Thesis, Brno University of Technology. https://www.vutbr.cz/www_base/zav_prace_soubor_verejne.php?file_id=93748
[32] Katyal, S., Thambimuthu, K. and Valix, M. (2006) Carbonisation of Bagasse in a Fixed Bed Reactor: Influence of Process Variables on Char Yield and Characteristics. Renewable Energy, 28, 713-725.
[33] Angin, D. (2013) Effect of Pyrolysis Temperature and Heating Rate on Biochar Obtained from Pyrolysis of Safflower Seed Press Cake. Bioresource Technology, 128, 593-597.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.10.150
[34] Yao, Y., Gao, B., Inyang, M., Zimmerman, A.R., Cao, X., Pullammanappallil, P. and Yang, L. (2011) Biochar Derived from Anaerobically Digested Sugar Beet Tailings: Characterization and Phosphate Removal Potential. Bioresource Technology, 102, 6273-6278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.03.006
[35] Jindarom, C., Meeyoo, V., Kitiyanan, B., Rirksomboon, T. and Rangsunvigit, P. (2007) Surface Characterization and Dye Adsorptive Capacities of Char Obtained from Pyrolysis/Gasification of Sewage Sludge. Chemical Engineering Journal, 133, 239-246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2007.02.002
[36] Zhang, X.C. and Liu, X.H. (2012) Effect of Biochar on pH of Alkaline Soils in the Loess Plateau: Results from Incubation Experiments. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology, 14, 745-750.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.