A Simple and Rapid Method for the Detection of Non-Ionic Surfactants

DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2014.516119   PDF   HTML   XML   4,531 Downloads   5,579 Views   Citations

Abstract

A spectrophotometric approach for the detection of non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-100) has been proposed in this paper. This method does not involve extraction of the ion-associate with harmful solvents, but employs adhesion of the ion-association of potassium/non-ionic surfactants complex and tetraphenylporphyrin tetrasulfonic acid obtained by vigorous shaking. The adhered ion-associate was dissolved with water and its absorbance was measured. The sensitivity for Triton X-100 was determined to be 0.146 (expressed as absorbance of 1 mg/L solution). The adhesion tendency of ion-associate was found to be dependent on the water contact angle, which in turn was influenced by a high adhesion of the ion-associate and by low blank values. In this respect, a tetrafluo-roethylene vessel was found to be the most suitable for the detection of non-ionic surfactants. This spectrophotometrical method is simply and rapidly performed by a procedure based on mechanical shaking and can be employed to detect non-ionic surfactants containing more than 7 polyethylene oxide units.

Share and Cite:

Kamaya, M. , Sugimoto, H. and Yamaguchi, Y. (2014) A Simple and Rapid Method for the Detection of Non-Ionic Surfactants. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 5, 1121-1128. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2014.516119.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Marcomini, A. and Zanette, M. (1996) Chromatographic Determination on No-Ionic Aliphatic Surfactants of the Alcohol Polyethoxylate Type in the Environment. Journal of Chromatography A, 733, 193-206.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(96)00009-X
[2] Boyd-Boland, A. and Pawliszyn, J. (1996) Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for the Determination of Alkylphenol Ethoxylate Surfactants in Water. Analytical Chemistry, 68, 1521-1529.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac950902w
[3] Ibrahim, N. and Wheals, B. (1996) Determination of Alkylphenol Ethoxylate Non-Ionic Surfactants in Trade Effluents by Sublation and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Analyst, 121, 239-242.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/an9962100239
[4] Kibbery, T., Yavaraski, T. and Hayes, K. (1996) High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Analysis of Polydisperse Ethoxylated Non-Ionic Surfactants in Aqueous Samples. Journal of Chromatography A, 752, 155-165.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(96)00474-8
[5] di Corcia, A., Crescenzi, C., Marcomini, A. and Samperi, R. (1988) Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray-Mass Spectrometry as a Valuable Tool for Characterizing Biodegradation Intermediates of Branched Alcohol Ethoxylate Surfactants. Environmental Science & Technology, 32, 711-718.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es970616x
[6] Boyd-Boland, A. and Eckert, J. (1993) Determination of Nonionic Surfactants by Spectrophotometry after Extraction with Potassium Triiodide. Analytica Chimica Acta, 271, 311-314.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-2670(93)80060-X
[7] Anderson, N. and Girling, J. (1982) Determination of Polyoxyethylene Non-Ionic Surfactants at Trace Levels. Analyst, 107, 836-838.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/an9820700836
[8] Crisp, P., Eckert, J., Gibson, N. and Webster, I. (1981) An Extraction-Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Non-Ionic Surfactants. Analytica Chimica Acta, 123, 355-357.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(01)83195-0
[9] Nozawa, A. and Ohnuma, T. (1976) Re-Examination of the Microanalysis of Non-Ionic Surfactants That Contain Polyoxyethylene Chains by the Method Involving Solvent Extraction of the Thiocyanatecobaltate(II) Complex. Analyst, 101, 543-548.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/an9760100543
[10] Kamaya, M., Tomizawa, Y. and Nagashima, K. (1998) Spectrophotometric Determination for the Determination of an Anionic Surfactant without Liquid-Liquid Extraction. Analytica Chimica Acta, 362, 157-161.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(98)00059-2
[11] Kamaya, M., Nagashima, K. and Namiki, H. (1997) Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Amounts of Anionic Surfactant by Air Stripping-Ethyl Violet Method. Journal of Environmental Chemistry, 7, 291-295.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5985/jec.7.291
[12] Sanemasa, I., Oota, A., Aoi, K. and Zheng, J.Z. (2002) Concentration on Glass Separatory Funnel Wall of Anionic Surfactants by Ion Association with Methylene Blue. Analytical Sciences, 18, 347-350.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2116/analsci.18.347
[13] Naganuma, K., Hanai, T., Li, H., Sugiyama, M. and Kajiyama, M. (1996) A Simple Colorimetric Analysis for Anionic Surfactants by PVC-Film Adsorbent, the Investigation for Domestic Wastewater and Application to Environmental Education. Kagaku to Kyoiku, 44, 329-332.
[14] Kamaya, M., Kaneko, Y. and Nagashima, K. (1999) Simple Method for Spectrophotometric Determination of Cationic Surfactants without Liquid-Liquid Extraction. Analytica Chimica Acta, 384, 215-218.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(98)00854-X
[15] Kamaya, M., Takahashi, J. and Nagashima, K. (2004) Rapid and Simple Determination of a Cationic Surfactant by Adsorption Induced by Vigorous Shaking. Microchimica Acta, 144, 35-39.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-003-0109-y
[16] Kamaya, M., Hashimoto, A. and Nagashima, K. (2004) Development of a Simple Test for Ethoxylated Nonionic Surfactants. Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment, 27, 735-740.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2965/jswe.27.735
[17] Sawada, K., Satoh, K., Haruta, C. and Kikuchi, Y. (1999) Partition and Complex Formation of Alkali Metal Ion with Long Chain Poly(Oxyethylene) Derivatives in 1,2-Dichloroethane. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 1, 2737-2741.
[18] Takatori, Y., Teshima, N. and Sakai, T. (2002) Simple Determination of Nonionic Surfactants Using Ion Association Reaction. Bunseki Kagaku, 51, 849-852.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2116/bunsekikagaku.51.849
[19] The Data Needed Were Extracted from the Following Page.
http://www.accudynetest.com/polytable_03.html?sortby=contact_angle
[20] Yanagida, S., Takahashi, K. and Okahara, M. (1977) Metal-Ion Complexation of Noncyclic Poly(Oxyethylene) Derivatives. I. Solvent Extraction of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metal Thiocyanates and Iodides. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 50, 1386-1390.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1246/bcsj.50.1386
[21] Sawada, K. and Kikuchi, Y. (2004) Complex Formation of Non-Cyclic Polyoxyethylenes and Their Application to Analytical Chemistry. Bunseki Kagaku, 53, 1239-1255.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2116/bunsekikagaku.53.1239

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.