Short-Time Derivatization Method for Analysis of Abamectin in Water Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Fluorescence Detector


A method using a short-time derivatization step for the assessment of abamectin in water is presented. Abamectin derivative stable up to 7 days was obtained. Some regions where orange crops are present have received abamectin doses, aiming to increase the productivity and to combat pests and weeds, even when its residues reach the aquatic environment and interfere on water quality. Water samples from Jacaré-Pepira River (Brotas City, Brazil) nearby orange crops around urban zone, were evaluated for the presence of abamectin. The analytical method was validated resulting recovery around 108%, precision of 12%, accuracy of 104%, correlation coefficient of 0.9945, and detection and quantification limits of 0.1 μg·L﹣1 and 0.2 μg·L﹣1, respectively. Stable abamectin derivative was reached after 60 min of derivatization at room temperature (25°C). No abamectin residues were found into samples.

Share and Cite:

Cordeiro, D. , Cappelini, L. , Verbinnen, R. , Vicente, G. , Novelli, A. , Espíndola, E. and Vieira, E. (2014) Short-Time Derivatization Method for Analysis of Abamectin in Water Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Fluorescence Detector. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 5, 1102-1108. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2014.516117.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Valenzuela, A.I., Popa, D.S., Redondo, M.J. and Manes, J. (2001) Comparison of Various Liquid Chromatographic Methods of Avermectin Residues in Citrus Fruits. Journal of Chromatography A, 918, 59-65.
[2] Brewer, B.N., Armbrust, K.L., Mead, K.T. and Holmes, W.E. (2004) Determination of Abamectin in Soil Samples Using HPLC-MS/MS. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 18, 1693-1696.
[3] Jencic, V., Cerne, M., Erzen, N.K., Kobal, S. and Cerkvenik-Flajs, V. (2006) Abamectin Effects on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Ecotoxicology, 15, 249-257.
[4] Sao Paulo (Estado) (2008) Instituto de Economia Agrícola. Levantamento censitário de unidades de producao agrícola do Estado de Sao Paulo—LUPA 2007/2008. SAA/CATI/IEA, Sao Paulo.
[5] Tomlin, C.D.S. (1994) The Pesticide Manual: Incorporating the Agrochemicals Handbook. British Crop Protection Council, The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge.
[6] Tisler, T. and Erzen, N.K. (2006) Abamectin in the Aquatic Environment. Ecotoxicology, 15, 495-502.
[7] United States (2012) EPA Index of Residue Analytical Methods (RAM).
[8] European Union (2007) Commission Directive 2007/7/EC of 14 February 2007 Amending Certain Annexes to Council Directives 86/362/EEC and 90/642/EEC. Official Journal of the European Union, L43, 19.
[9] Raich-Montiu, J., Krogh, K.A., Granados, M., Jonsson, J.A. and Halling-Sorensen, B. (2008) Determination of Ivermectin and Transformation Products in Environmental Waters Using Hollow Fibre-Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction and LC-MS/MS. Journal of Chromatography A, 1187, 275-280.
[10] Reemtsma, T., Aldera, L. and Banasiak, U. (2013) A Multimethod for the Determination of 150 Pesticide Metabolites in Surface Water and Groundwater Using Direct Injection Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1271, 95-104.
[11] Campillo, N., Vinas, P., Férez-Melgarejo, G. and Hernán-dez-Córdoba, M. (2013) Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction for the Determination of Macrocyclic Lactones in Milk by Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Ion-Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1282, 20-26.
[12] Berendsen, B.J.A., Mulder, P.P.J. and Van Rhijn, H.J.A. (2007) The Derivatisation of Avermectins and Milbemycins in Milk: New Insights and Improvement of the Procedure. Analytica Chimica Acta, 585, 126-133.
[13] Novelli, A., Vieira, B.H., Cordeiro, D., Cappelini, L.T.D., Vieira, E.M. and Espíndola, E.L.G. (2012) Lethal Effects of Abamectin on the Aquatic Organisms Daphnia similis, Chironomus xanthus and Danio rerio. Chemosphere, 86, 36-40.
[14] Hernández-Borges, J., Ravelo-Pérez, L.M., Hernán-dez-Suárez, E.M., Carnero, A. and Rodríguez-Delgado, M.A. (2007) Analysis of Abamectin Residues by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection. Journal of Chromatography A, 1165, 52-57.
[15] Danaher, M., Howells, L.C., Crooks, S.R.H., Cerkvenik-Flajs, V. and O’Keeffe, M. (2006) Review of Methodology for the Determination of Macrocyclic Lactone Residues in Biological Matrices. Journal of Chromatography B, 844, 175- 203.
[16] Krogh, K.A., Bjorklund, E., Loeffler, D., Fink, G., Halling-Sorensen, B. and Ternes, T.A. (2008) Development of an Analytical Method to Determine Avermectins in Water, Sediments and Using LC-MS. Journal of Chromatography A, 1211, 60-69.
[17] Hernando, M.D. and Suárez-Barcena, J.M. (2007) Fast-Separation LC-MS and Quantitative Analysis of Avermectin Residues in Food. Journal of Chromatography A, 1155, 62-73.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.