Monitoring the Sequelae of Coronary Microembolization on Myocardium Using Noninvasive Imaging (Review)

DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.412073   PDF   HTML   XML   3,749 Downloads   4,054 Views   Citations


Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of death worldwide. It has been clinically classified into 1) ischemic from a primary coronary event (e.g., plaque rupture or thrombotic occlusion), 2) ischemic from a supply-and-demand mismatch and c) ischemic from a percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Catheter-based PCI has been frequently used as an alternative to conventional bypass surgery for patients at high risk. However, this method of treatment is associated with microvascular obstruction (MVO) by dislodged microemboli that results in left ventricular (LV) dysfunction/remodeling, perfusion deficits, microinfarction and arrhythmia. The contributions of microemboli after revascularization of AMI have been acknowledged by major cardiac and interventional societies. Recent studies showed that Emboli Detection and Classification (EDAC) Quantifier offers increased sensitivity and capability for detecting dislodged coronary microemboli during PCI. Coronary microembolization can be detected directly by monitoring intra-myocardial contrast opacification on contrast echocardiography, increasing F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography, loss/diminution of signal on first pass perfusion and hypoenhanced zone on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and indirectly by ST-segment elevation on electro-cardiography (ECG). The relations between volumes/sizes of microemboli, visibility of microinfarct, myocardial perfusion and LV function are still under intensive discussions. Non-invasive imaging can play important role in assessing these parameters. This review shed the light on the techniques used for detecting coronary microemboli, microvascular obstruction and microinfarct and the short- and long-term effects of microemboli on LV function, structure and perfusion.

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Saeed, M. and Wilson, M. (2014) Monitoring the Sequelae of Coronary Microembolization on Myocardium Using Noninvasive Imaging (Review). World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, 4, 601-622. doi: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.412073.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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