Thermochemical Assessment of Solid and Liquid Fuels Used for Domestic Space Heating in Jordan


The gross calorific values of crude and exhausted olive pomace, oak, almond, olive wood, olive oil, kerosene, and diesel are reported in this article. Conversion of crude olive pomace into exhausted olive pomace resulted in 10% reduction in calorific value. The net calorific value of crude olive pomace amounts to 92% of its gross calorific value. The ultimate and proximate analyses of crude olive pomace representing the 2006-2008 olive harvest seasons were determined and compared with analyses pertaining to the 2009-2011 olive harvest seasons in Jordan. Controlled charring of crude olive pomace reduced its mass down to about 20%. Pyrolysis thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves were recorded under nitrogen atmosphere for crude olive pomace and wood samples. Quantitative data on three DTG major peaks are reported for wood samples and crude olive pomace. A comparison based on market price and calorific value of a fuel showed that olive pomace is the most rewarding fuel for domestic space heating in Jordan.

Share and Cite:

Tawarah, K. (2014) Thermochemical Assessment of Solid and Liquid Fuels Used for Domestic Space Heating in Jordan. Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 4, 202-219. doi: 10.4236/gsc.2014.44026.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Al-Shdeifat, S.M. and Al-Bdoor, H.A. (2009) Annual Report. National Center for Scientific Research and Agricultural Extension, Jordan.
[2] Abu-Qudais, M. and Okasha, G. (1996) Diesel Fuel and Olive-Cake Slurry: Atomization and Combustion Performance. Applied Energy, 54, 315-326.
[3] Al-Widyan, M.I., Tashtoush, G. and Khadair, A.I. (2002) Briquettes of Olive Cake as a Potential Source of Thermal Energy. Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, 28, 51-59.
[4] Jumah, R., Al-Kteimat, E., Al-Hamad, A. and Telfah, E. (2007) Constant and Intermittent Drying Characteristics of Olive Cake. Drying Technology, 25, 1421-1426.
[5] Aljundi, I.H. and Jarrah, N.A. (2008) A Study of Characteristics of Activated Carbon Produced from Jordanian Olive Cake. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 81, 33-36.
[6] El-Sheikh, A.H., Sweileh, J.A. and Saleh, M.I. (2009) Partially Pyrolyzed Olive Pomace Sorbent of High Permeability for Pre-Concentration of Environmental Waters. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 169, 58-64.
[7] Tawarah, K.M. and Rababah, R.A. (2013) Characteristics of Some Jordanian Crude and Exhausted Olive Pomace Samples. Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 3, 146-162.
[8] Mata-Sánchez, J., Pérez-Jiménez, J.A., Díaz-Villanueva, M.J., Serrano, A., Núñez-Sánchez, N. and López-Giménez, F.J. (2014) Development of Olive Stone Quality System Based on Biofuel Energetic Parameters Study. Renewable Energy, 66, 251-256.
[9] Garcia-Maraver, A., Terron, L.C., Zambrano, M. and Ramos-Ridao, A.F. (2013) Thermal Events during the Combustion of Agricultural and Forestry Lopping Residues. In: Mendez-Vilas, A., Ed., Materials and Processes for Energy: Communicating Current Research and Technological Developments, Formatex, 407-411.
[10] Misra, M.K., Ragland, K.W. and Baker, A.J. (1993) Wood Ash Composition as a Function of Furnace Temperature. Biomass and Bioenergy, 4, 103-116.
[11] ASTM Standard D3172 (2007) Standard Practice for Proximate Analysis of Coal and Coke. ASTM International.
[12] Mayoral, M.C., Izquierdo, M.T., Andrés, J.M. and Rubio, B. (2001) Different Approaches to Proximate Analysis by Thermogravimetry Analysis. Thermochemica Acta, 370, 91-97.
[13] Cantrell, K.B., Martin II, J.H. and Kyoung, S.R. (2010) Application of Thermogravimetric Analysis for the Proximate Analysis of Livestock Wastes. Journal of ASTM International, 7, 1-13.
[14] Parikha, J., Channiwalab, S.A. and Ghosal, J.K. (2005) A Correlation for Calculating HHV from Proximate Analysis of Solid Fuels. Fuel, 84, 487-494.
[15] Gaur, S. and Reed, T.B. (1998) Thermal Data for Natural and Synthetic Fuels. Marcel Dekker, New York, 259.
[16] Varol, M. (2006) Combustion and Co-Combustion of Olive Cake and Coalina Fluidized Bed. Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
[17] Parr 587 M-6400 (2011) Oxygen Bomb Calorimeter Operating Instruction Manual. Chapter 7, Parr Instruments Company, Moline.
[18] ASTM Standard D5865-11A (2011) Standard Test Method for Gross Calorific Value of Coal and Cock. ASTM International, Appendix XI.
[19] Marsh, K.N. (1987) Recommended Reference Materials for the Realization of Physicochemical Properties. Blackwell, Oxford.
[20] Meraz, L., Dominguez, A., Kornhauser, I. and Roja, F. (2003) A Thermochemical Concept-Based Equation to Estimate Waste Combustion Enthalpy from Elemental Composition. Fuel, 82, 1499-1507.
[21] Brlek, T., Voca, N., Kricka, T., Levic, J., Vukmirovic, D. and Colovic, R. (2012) Quality of Pelleted Olive Cake for Energy Generation. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 77, 31-35.
[22] Miranda, T., Esteban, A., Rojas, S., Montero, I. and Ruiz, A. (2008) Combustion Analysis of Different Olive Residues. International Journal of Molecular Science, 9, 512-525.
[23] Integra Fuels. Typical Specifications of Olive Cake.
[24] Gravalos, I., Gialamas, T., Koutsofitis, Z., Kateris, D., Tsiropoulos, Z., Xyradakis, P. and Georgiades, A. (2008) Energetic Study on Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Using Combustion Bomb Calorimeter. Journal of Agricultural Machinery Science, 4, 69-74.
[25] NIST Chemistry Web Book, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69.
[26] Heikkinen, J.M., Hordijk, J.C., de Jong, W. and Spliethoff, H. (2004) Thermogravimetry as a Tool to Classify Waste Components to Be Used for Energy Generation. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 71, 883-900.
[27] Sørum, L., Grønli, M.G. and Hustad, J.E. (2001) Pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetics of Municipal Solid Wastes. Fuel, 80, 1217-1227.
[28] Wu, C.H., Chang, C.Y. and Lin, J.P. (1997) Pyrolysis Kinetics of Paper Mixtures in Municipal Solid Waste. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 68, 65-67.<65::AID-JCTB610>3.0.CO;2-T
[29] Yang, H., Yan, R., Chin, T., Liang, D.T., Chen, H. and Zheng, C. (2004) Thermogravimetric Analysis-Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis of Palm Oil Waste Pyrolysis. Energy & Fuels, 18, 1814-1821.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.