Drug Resistance Trends and Patterns of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Isolates from Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Turkey

Abstract

Background: We aim to determine the proportions and patterns of resistance to first-line drugs: isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R), ethambutol (E) and streptomycin (S) among pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Methods: Strains were obtained from 1584 culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. All specimens were inoculated into L?wenstein-Jensen media (LJ) and TK selective; drug susceptibility tests (DST) were performed for first-line drugs. Results: Multidrug resistant (MDR) were detected in 146 (9.2%) isolates. Three hundred (18.9%) isolates were resistant to H; 220 (13.9%) to R; 168 (10.6%) to S; 137 (8.6%) to E. Any drug resistance was detected in 442 (27.9%) isolates. MDR rate was higher in male patients than females (P = 0.006). MDR rates were different according to the age groups (P = 0.02). The highest rate was in 35 - 44 years and the lowest rate was in 15 - 24 years. Conclusions: We found an association between middle age and male gender and MDR tuberculosis.

Share and Cite:

Yazar, E. , Yildiz, P. , Gunluoglu, G. , Altin, S. , Yilmaz, V. , Gencer, D. and Yazisiz, H. (2014) Drug Resistance Trends and Patterns of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Isolates from Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Turkey. Journal of Tuberculosis Research, 2, 155-159. doi: 10.4236/jtr.2014.24019.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Frieden, T.R., Sterling, T.R., Munsiff, S.S., Watt, C.J. and Dye, C. (2003) Tuberculosis. Lancet, 13, 887-899. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14333-4
[2] Petrini, B. and Hoffner, S. (1999) Drug-Resistant and Multidrug-Resistant Tubercle Bacilli. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 13, 93-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-8579(99)00111-9
[3] Pillay, M. and Sturm, A.W. (2007) Evolution of the Extensively Drug-Resistant F15/LAM4/KZN Strain of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 45, 1409-1414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/522987
[4] WHO (2012) WHO 2012 Global Tuberculosis Report. World Health Organization, Geneva.
http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/
[5] Becerra, M.C., Farmer, P.E. and Kim, J.Y. (1999) The Problem of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: An Overview. In: The Global Impact of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis, Program in Infectious Disease and Social Change, Department of Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, 1-38.
[6] (2011) 2011 Turkey National Tuberculosis Report. Turkish Government Tuberculosis Fight Ministry, Ankara, 47-75.
[7] Kocagöz, T., Altin, S., Türkyilmaz, Ö., et al. (2012) Efficiency of the TK Culture System in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 72, 350-357.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2011.12.004
[8] Tahaoglu, K., Törün, T., Sevim, T., et al. (2001) The Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Turkey. The New England Journal of Medicine, 19, 170-174.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200107193450303
[9] Sevim, T., Aksoy, E., Ataç, G., et al. (2002) Treatment Adherence of 717 Patients with Tuberculosis in a Social Security System Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 6, 25-31.
[10] Taha, N., Hamed, A., Qurechi, J.A., Ahmad, B. and Abraham, S. (2009) Rifampicin Resistance Profile of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Isolated from Human Patients. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences, 46, 131-136.
[11] Willy, U., Fernand, M., Eduardo, V., et al. (2008) Primary Antimicrobial Resistance among Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Isolates from HIV Seropositive and HIV Seronegative Patients in Dares Salam Tanzania. BMC (Research Notes), 1, 58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-1-58
[12] Lönnroth, K., Jaramillo, E., Williams, B.G., Dye, C. and Raviglione, M. (2009) Drivers of Tuberculosis Epidemics: The Role of Risk Factors and Social Determinants. Social Science & Medicine, 68, 2240-2246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.03.041
[13] Quy, H.T., Buu, T.N., Cobelens, F.G., Lan, N.T., Lambregts, C.S. and Borgdorff, M.W. (2006) Drug Resistance among Smear-Positive Tuberculosis Patients in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 10, 160-166.
[14] Ocheretina, O., Morose, W., Gauthier, M., et al. (2012) Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 31, 221-224.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1020-49892012000300006
[15] Tatar, D., Senol, G., Cosar, D., Ozacar, R. and Halilcolar, H. (2009) Patterns of Drug Resistance in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in the Izmir District, Turkey. New Microbiologica, 32, 31-37.
[16] WHO (2008) Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance in the World. Guidelines for the Programmatic Management of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[17] Ndung’u, P.W., Kariuki, S., Ng’ang’a, Z. and Revathi, G. (2012) Resistance Patterns of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Isolates from Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Nairobi. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 6, 33-39.
[18] Trivedi, S.S. and Desai, S.G. (1988) Primary Antituberculosis Drug Resistance and Acquired Rifampicin Resistance in Gujarat, India. Tubercle, 69, 37-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0041-3879(88)90038-4
[19] Joint Tuberculosis Committee of the British Thoracic Society (2006) Tuberculosis: Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Tuberculosis, and Measures for Its Prevention and Control. BTS Guidelines, 2006 April.
[20] WHO 2011 TB Report: World Health Organization (2011) Global Tuberculosis Control: 2011. WHO, Geneva.

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.