The Characteristics and Laterality of Explosive Force Exertion of Hand Grip and Toe Grip


This study examines the force exertion characteristics and laterality of maximal explosive force exertion of hand grip and toe grip. Fifteen male subjects, aged 19 to 23 years, performed maximal explosive hand grip and toe grip exertions with their dominant and non-dominant sides. Maximal force value and integral force for 2 sec in the hand grip exertions were significantly larger than those in the toe grip exertions in both the dominant and non-dominant sides. The time required to achieve 90% maximal force value in the hand grip exertions was significantly shorter than that in the toe grip exertions in both sides. Correlations between the dominant and non-dominant sides were significant (r = 0.710 - 0.889) in maximal force value and integral force for 2 sec during the hand and toe grip exertions, but they were not significant (hand grip: r = 0.242, toe grip: r = 0.032) with respect to the time taken to achieve 90% maximal force value. In conclusion, a force exertion value increases more quickly in an explosive hand grip than that in an explosive toe grip. The laterality may relate to time parameters in both explosive force exertions, but not to ones related to force.

Share and Cite:

Nakada, M. and Demura, S. (2014) The Characteristics and Laterality of Explosive Force Exertion of Hand Grip and Toe Grip. Advances in Physical Education, 4, 175-180. doi: 10.4236/ape.2014.44021.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Aoki, H., & Demura, S. (2008). Characteristics and Lateral Dominance of Hand Grip and Elbow Flexion Powers in Young Male Adults. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 27, 201-206.
[2] Demura, S., Miyaguchi, K., & Aoki, H. (2010a). The Difference in Output Properties between Dominant and NondominantLimbs as Measured by Various Muscle Function Tests. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24, 2816-2820.
[3] Demura, S., Sato, S., & Sugiura, H. (2010b). Lower Limb Laterality Characteristics Based on the Relationship between Activities and Individual Laterality. Gazzetta Medica Italiana—Archivioper le ScienzeMediche, 169, 181-191.
[4] Demura, S., Sato, S., & Nagasawa, Y. (2009). Re-Examination of Useful Items for Determining Hand Dominance. GazzettaMedicaItaliana—Archivioper le ScienzeMediche, 168, 169-177.
[5] Demura, S., Yamaji, S., Minami, M., Nagasawa, Y., Kita, I., & Matsuzawa J. (1999). Examining Reproducibility of Force-Exertion Pattern and Reliability of Force-Time Parameters in the Development Phase during Static Explosive Grip Exertion. Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine, 48, 493-500.
[6] Holmes, J. R., & Alderink, G. J. (1984). Isokinetic Strength Characteristics of the Quadriceps Femoris and Hamstring Muscles in High School Students. Physical Therapy, 64, 914-918.
[7] Hughes, J., Clark, P., & Klenerman, L. (1990). The Importance of the Toes in Walking. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (British), 72-B, 245-251.
[8] Kubota, H., & Demura, S. (2011). Gender Differences and Laterality in Maximal Handgrip Strength and Controlled Force Exertion in Young Adults. Health, 3, 684-688.
[9] Kubota, H., Demura, S., & Kawabata, H. (2012). Laterality and Age-Level Differences between Young Women and Elderly Women in Controlled Force Exertion (CFE). Archives Gerontology and Geriatrics, 54, e68-e72.
[10] Menz, H. B., Zammit, G. V., Munteanu, S. E., & Scott, G. (2006). Plantarflexion Strength of the Toes: Age and Gender Differences and Evaluation of a Clinical Screening Test. Foot and Ankle International, 27, 1103-1108.
[11] Miyaguchi, K., & Demura, S. (2008). Lateral Dominance of Stretch-Shortening Cycle Performance in Unilateral and Bilateral Athletes. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 48, 24-30.
[12] Nakada, M., & Demura, S. (2013). Comparison of Force Exertion Characteristics of Sustained Hand Grip and Toe Grip. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 1, 28-32.
[13] Nakada, M., Demura, S., Yamaji, S., & Nagasawa, Y. (2005). Examination of the Reproducibility of Grip Force and Muscle Oxygenation Kinetics on Maximal Repeated Rhythmic Grip Exertion. Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science, 24, 1-6.
[14] Noguchi T., Demura, S., & Aoki, H. (2009). Superiority of the Dominant and Nondominant Hands in Static Strength and Controlled Force Exertion. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 109, 339-346.
[15] Yamaji, S., Demura, S., Nagasawa, Y., Nakada, M., Yoshimura, Y., Matsuzawa, J., & Toyoshima, Y. (2000). Examination of the Parameters of Static Muscle Endurance on Sustained Static Maximal Hand Gripping. Japan Journal of Physical Education, 45, 695-706.
[16] Yamaji, S., Demura, S., Nagasawa, Y., Nakada, M., & Kitabayashi, T. (2002). The Effect of Measurement Time When Evaluating Static Muscle Endurance during Sustained Static Maximal Gripping. Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science, 21, 151-158.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.