Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Their Partner Bacteria on the Growth of Sesame Plants and the Concentration of Sesamin in the Seeds

DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.520323   PDF   HTML     2,840 Downloads   3,733 Views   Citations

Abstract

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can stimulate the plant growth. Pseudomonas sp. (KCIGC01) NBRC109613 isolated from the spores of Glomus clarum IK97, an AMF, is reported to support the plant growth and development as partner bacteria (PB) for AMF REF _Ref399417929 \r \h \* MERGEFORMAT [1]. In order to investigate the effect of G. clarum IK97 and Pseudomonas sp. (KCIGC01) NBRC109613 on the secondary metabolites, these microorganisms were inoculated to sesame plants. The inoculation of these microorganisms stimulated the growth of sesame. The rate of sesame root colonization in G. clarum IK97 + Pseudomonas sp. (KCIGC01) NBRC109613 inoculated plants (66.4% ± 4.4%) was higher than that in G. clarum IK97 alone inoculated plants (39.2% ± 5.8%). Furthermore, the content of sesamin in sesame seeds was increased by the inoculation of these microorganisms. In particular, the content of sesamin in the treatment inoculated with G. clarum IK97 and Pseudomonas sp. (KCIGC01) NBRC-109613 was 11.4 ± 1.5 mg/g seed. The results suggest that AMF and their partner bacteria can stimulate the growth and development of sesame plants and increase the content of sesamin in the seeds.

Share and Cite:

Horii, S. and Ishii, T. (2014) Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Their Partner Bacteria on the Growth of Sesame Plants and the Concentration of Sesamin in the Seeds. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 3066-3072. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.520323.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Ishii, T. (2012) Soil Management with Partner Plants Which Propagate Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Their Endobacteria. IFO Research Communications, 26, 87-100.
[2] Smith, S.E. and Read, D.J. (1997) Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. 2nd Edition, Academic Press, London.
[3] Ishii, T. (2014) The Role and Use of Mycorrhizal Fungi. Rural Culture Association. (In Japanese)
[4] Cruz, A.F., Ishii, T. and Kadoya, K. (2000) Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Tree Growth, Leaf Water Potential, and Levels of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid and Ethylene in the Roots of Papaya under Water-Stress Conditions. Mycorrhiza, 10, 121-123.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s005720000067
[5] Gange, A.C. and West, M. (1994) Interactions between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Foliar-Feeding Insects in Plantago lanceolata L. New Phytologist, 128, 79-87.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1994.tb03989.x
[6] Ishii, T., Narutaki, A., Sawada, K., Aikawa, J., Matsumoto, I. and Kadoya, K. (1997) Growth Stimulatory Substances for Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Bahia Grass (Paspalum notatum Flügge.) Roots. Plant and Soil, 196, 301-304.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1004232309393
[7] Azcón-Aguilar, C. and Barea, J.M. (1996) Arbuscular Mycorrhizas and Biological Control of Soil-Borne Pathogens— An Overview of the Mechanisms Involved. Mycorrhiza, 6, 457-464.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1004232309393
[8] Rillig, M.C. (2004) Arbuscular Mycorrhizae, Glomalin, and Soil Aggregation. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 84, 355-363.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/S04-003
[9] Tarkka, M.T. and Frey-Klett, P. (2008) Mycorrhiza Helper Bacteria. In: Varma, A., Ed., Mycorrhiza, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 113-132.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-78826-3_6
[10] Bonfante, P., Balestrini, R. and Mendgen, K. (1994) Storage and Secretion Processes in the Spore of Gigaspora margarita Becker and Hall as Revealed by High-Pressure Freezing and Freeze-Substitution. New Phytologist, 128, 93-101.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1994.tb03991.x
[11] Cruz, A.F. (2004) Element Storage in Spores of Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall Measured by Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). Acta Botanica Brasilica, 18, 473-480.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062004000300007
[12] Sonntag, N.O.V. (1979) Composition and Characteristics of Individual Fats and Oils. In: Swern, D., Ed., Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 289-477.
[13] Kahyaoglu, T. and Kaya, S. (2006) Modeling of Moisture, Color and Texture Changes in Sesame Seeds during the Conventional Roasting. Journal of Food Engineering, 75, 167-177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.04.011
[14] Kanu, P.J., Zhu, K., Kanu, J.B., Zhou, H.M., Qian, H.F. and Zhu, K.X. (2007) Biologically Active Components and Nutraceuticals in Sesame and Related Products: A Review and Prospect. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 18, 599-608.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2007.06.002
[15] Kamal-Eldin, A., Moazzami, A. and Washi, S. (2011) Sesame Seed Lignans: Potent Physiological Modulators and Possible Ingredients in Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals. Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition and Agriculture, 3, 17-29.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2212798411103010017
[16] Budowski, P. and Markley, K.S. (1951) The Chemical and Physiological Properties of Sesame Oil. Chemical Reviews, 48, 125-151.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr60149a005
[17] Budowski, P. (1964) Recent Research on Sesamin, Sesamolin and Related Compounds. The Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 41, 280-285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02667019
[18] Davin, L.B., Wang, H.B., Crowell, A.L., Bedgar, D.L., Martin, D.M., Sarkanen, S. and Lewis, N.G. (1997) Stereoselective Bimolecular Phenoxy Radical Coupling by an Auxiliary (Dirigent) Protein without an Active Center. Science, 275, 362-367.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.275.5298.362
[19] Kato, M.J., Chu, A., Davin, L.B. and Lewis, N.G. (1998) Biosynthesis of Antioxidant Lignans in Sesamum indicum Seeds. Phytochemistry, 47, 583-591.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00727-9
[20] Fukuda, Y., Osawa, T., Namiki, M. and Ozaki, T. (1985) Studies on Antioxidative Substances in Sesame Seed. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 49, 301-306.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.49.301
[21] Matsumura, Y., Kita, S., Morimoto, S., Akimoto, M., Furuya, M., Oka, N. and Tanaka, T. (1995) Antihypertensive Effect of Sesamin. I. Protection against Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt-Induced Hypertension and Cardiovascular Hypertrophy. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 18, 1016-1019.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.18.1016
[22] Nonaka, M., Yamashita, K., Izuka, Y., Namiki, M. and Sugano, M. (1997) Effects of Dietary Sesaminol and Sesamin on Eicosanoid Production and Immunoglobulin Level in Rats Given Ethanol. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 61, 836-839.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.61.836
[23] Tsuruoka, N., Kidokoro, A., Matsumoto, I., Abe, K. and Kiso, Y. (2005) Modulating Effect of Sesamin, a Functional Lignan in Sesame Seeds, on the Transcription Levels of Lipid- and Alcohol-Metabolizing Enzymes in Rat Liver: A DNA Microarray Study. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 69, 179-188.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.69.179
[24] Hirose, N., Inoue, T., Nishihara, K., Sugano, M., Akimoto, K., Shimizu, S. and Yamada, H. (1991) Inhibition of Cholesterol Absorption and Synthesis in Rats by Sesamin. Journal of Lipid Research, 32, 629-638.
[25] Akimoto, K., Kitagawa, Y., Akamatsu, T., Hirose, N., Sugano, M., Shimizu, S. and Yamada, H. (1993) Protective Effects of Sesamin against Liver-Damage Caused by Alcohol or Carbon-Tetrachloride in Rodents. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 37, 218-224.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000177771
[26] Harikumar, V.S. (2013) Symbiotic Response of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) to Different Indigenous Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) from Rice Fallows of Kerala, India. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 9, 1631-1640.
[27] Phillips, J.M. and Hayman, D.S. (1970) Improved Procedures for Clearing Roots and Staining Parasitic and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi for Rapid Assessment of Infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 55, 158-161.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1536(70)80110-3
[28] Ishii, T. and Kadoya, K. (1994) Effects of Charcoal as a Soil Conditioner on Citrus Growth and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Development. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 63, 529-535.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2503/jjshs.63.529
[29] Yasumoto, S.S., Komeichi, M., Okuyama, Y. and Horigane, K. (2003) A Simplified HPLC Quantification of Sesamin and Sesamolin in Sesame Seed. SABRAO Journal of Breeding and Genetics, 35, 27-34.
[30] Shrestha, Y.H., Ishii, T., Matsumoto, I. and Kadoya, K. (1996) Effects of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Satsuma Mandarin Tree Growth and Water Stress Tolerance and on Fruit Development and Quality. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 64, 801-807.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2503/jjshs.64.801
[31] Ishii, T., Kirino, S. and Kadoya, K. (2000) Construction of Sustainable Citriculture by Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: Introduction of New Soil Management. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 2, 1026-1029.
[32] Copetta, A., Bardi, L., Bertolone, E. and Berta, G. (2011) Fruit Production and Quality of Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Are Affected by Green Compost and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi. Plant Biosystems, 145, 106-115.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2010.539781
[33] Berta, G., Copetta, A., Gamalero, E., Bona, E., Cesaro, P., Scarafoni, A. and D’Agostino, G. (2014) Maize Development and Grain Quality Are Differentially Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi and a Growth-Promoting Pseudomonad in the Field. Mycorrhiza, 24, 161-170.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00572-013-0523-x
[34] Bianciotto, V., Minerdi, D., Perotto, S. and Bonfante, P. (1996) Cellular Interactions between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizosphere Bacteria. Protoplasma, 193, 123-131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01276640
[35] Meyer, J.R. and Linderman, R.G. (1986) Response of Subterranean Clover to Dual Inoculation with Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium, Pseudomonas putida. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 18, 185-190.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(86)90025-8
[36] Gamalero, E., Martinotti, M.G., Trotta, A., Lemanceau, P. and Berta, G. (2002) Morphogenetic Modifications Induced by Pseudomonas fluorescens A6RI and Glomus mosseae BEG12 in the Root System of Tomato Differ According to Plant Growth Conditions. New Phytologist, 155, 293-300.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2002.00460.x
[37] Lingua, G., Gamalero, E., Fusconi, A., Lemanceau, P. and Berta, G. (2008) Colonization of Plant Roots by Pseudomonads and AM Fungi: A Dynamic Phenomenon, Affecting Plant Growth and Health. In: Varma, A., Ed., Mycorrhiza, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 601-626.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-78826-3_29
[38] Hamel, C. and Plenchette, C. (2007) Mycorrhizae in Crop Production. Haworth Food and Agricultural Products Press, Binghampton.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mycres.2008.06.019
[39] Burr, T.J., Schroth, M.N. and Suslow, T. (1978) Increased Potato Yields by Treatment of Seedpieces with Specific Strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. putida. Phytopathology, 68, 1377-1383.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-68-1377
[40] Gamalero, E., Trotta, A., Massa, N., Copetta, A., Martinotti, M.G. and Berta, G. (2004) Impact of Two Fluorescent Pseudomonads and an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus on Tomato Plant Growth, Root Architecture and P Acquisition. Mycorrhiza, 14, 185-192.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00572-003-0256-3
[41] Ishii, T., Kitabayashi, H., Aikawa, J., Matsumoto, I., Kadoya, K. and Kirino, S. (2000) Effects of Alginate Oligosaccharide and Polyamines on Hyphal Growth of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Their Infectivity of Citrus Roots. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 2, 1030-1032.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.