Metal Concentrations in Snow Samples in an Urban Area in the Po Valley


This study shows a chemical and morphological characterization of snow samples collected near crossroads of urban area of Ferrara and near the Technological College of University of Ferrara (Italy) during three important snowfalls. The field campaigns were carried out in the eastern part of Po Valley (Italy) in winter 2009-2010. The chemical composition of melted snow was compared with analyses of the same filtered samples of melted snow so as to give the composition of particles smaller than a few nm. The metal concentrations in the aerosol particles were analyzed with ICP-MS and IC methodologies, while the morphological features were described by SEM-EDS analyses. The results showed that snow samples were characterized by important amounts of allumo silicates with dimensions larger than 0.45 μm, from resuspension of the local soil, and IC analysis confirmed the anthropogenic pollution of the snow. Six main particles were classed and recognized: silica, carbonate, allumo silicate, sodium chloride and organic compounds, including biogenic materials and pollen (agricultural aerosols which are composed for 92% of single particles and for the remaining 8% of agglomerations of particles). We present here initial data on heavy metals in snow collected in Ferrara. They were obtained by analyzing fresh snow deposited during three snowfall events in December 2010, February and March 2011. The analyses were performed by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ion chromatography (IC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS).

Share and Cite:

Telloli, C. (2014) Metal Concentrations in Snow Samples in an Urban Area in the Po Valley. International Journal of Geosciences, 5, 1116-1136. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2014.510095.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Barbante, C., Cozzi, G., Capodaglio, G., Van De Velde, K., Ferrari, C., Boutron, C. and Cescon, P. (1999) Trace Element Determination in Alpine Snow and Ice by Double Focusing Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with Microconcentric Nebulization. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 14, 1433-1438.
[2] Sansalone, J.J., Glenn, D.W. and Tribouillard, T. (2003) Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Urban Snow Residuals Generated from Traffic Activities. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 148, 45-60.
[3] Reinsdotter, K. and Viklander, M. (2005) A Comparison of Snow Quality in Two Swedish Municipalities: Lulea and Sundsvall. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 167, 3-16.
[4] Bizotto, E.C., Villa, S., Vaj, C. and Vighi, M. (2009) Comparison of Glacial and Non-Glacial Fed Streams to Evaluate the Loading of Persistent Organic Pollutants through Seasonal Snow/Ice Melt. Chemosphere, 74, 924-930.
[5] Bartles-Rausch, T., Krysztofiak, G., Bernhard, A., Schlappi, M., Schwikowski, M. and Ammann, M. (2011) Photoinduced Reduction of Divalent Mercury in the Ice by Organic Matter. Chemosphere, 82, 199-203.
[6] Vasic, M.V., Mihailovic, A., Kozmidis-Luburic, U., Nemes, T., Ninkov, J., Zeremski-Skoric, T. and Antic, B. (2012) Metal Contamination of Short-Term Snow Cover near Urban Crossroads: Correlation Analysis of Metal Content and Fine Particles Distribution. Chemosphere, 85, 585-592.
[7] Decreto Ministeriale 2 aprile 2002, No. 60. Recepimento della Direttiva 1999/30/CE del consiglio del 22 aprile 1999. Documento 402H0060.000 di Origine Nazionale, emanato da: Ministro dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e pubblicato sulla Gazzetta Ufficiale Supplemento Ordin. No. 87 del 13/04/2002.
[8] Direttiva 1999/30/CE del Consiglio del 22 aprile 1999. Concernente i valori limite di qualita dell’aria ambiente per il biossido di zolfo, il biossido di azoto, gli ossidi di azoto, le particelle e il piombo. Pubblicatosu: Gazzettaufficiale n. L 163 del 29/06/1999, 0041-0060.
[9] Polichetti, G., Cocco, S., Spinali, A., Trimarco, V. and Nunziata, A. (2009) Effects of Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) on the Cardiovascular System. Toxicology, 261, 1-8.
[10] Scapellato, M.L., Canova, C., Simone, A., Carrieri, M., Maestrelli, P., Simonato, L. and Bartolucci, G.B. (2009) Personal PM10 Exposure in Asthmatic Adults in Padova, Italy: Seasonal Variability and Factors Affecting Individual Concentrations of Particulate Matter. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 212, 626-636.
[11] Metallo, M.C., Poli, A.A., Diana, M., Persia, F. and Cirillo, M.C. (1995) Air Pollution Loads on Historical Monuments: An Air Quality Model Application to the Marble Arch of Titus in Rome. Science of the Total Environment, 171, 163-172.
[12] Primerano, P., Marino, G., Di Pasquale, S., Mavilia, L. and Corigliano, F. (2000) Possible Alteration of Monuments Caused by Particles Emitted into the Atmosphere Carrying Strong Primary Acidity. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 3889-3896.
[13] Kampa, M. and Castanas, E. (2008) Human Health Effects of Air Pollution. Environmental Pollution, 151, 362-367.
[14] Kim, H.W., Ahn, E.K., Jee, B.K., Yoon, H.K., Lee, K.H. and Lim, Y. (2009) Nanoparticulate-Induced Toxicity and Related Mechanism in Vitro and in Vivo. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 11, 55-65.
[15] Huang, J., Kang, S., Zhang, Q., Guo, J., Chen, P., Zhang, G. and Tripathee, L. (2013) Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements Recorded in Snow from the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha Region, Southern Tibetan Plateau. Chemosphere, 92, 871-881.
[16] Pacyna, J.M. and Pacyna, E.G. (2001) An Assessment of Global and Regional Emissions of Trace Metals to the Atmosphere from Anthropogenic Sources Worldwide. Environmental Research, 9, 269-298.
[17] Sposito, G. (2008) The Chemistry of Soils. Second Edition, Oxford University Press Inc., New York.
[18] Shridhar, V., Khillare, P.S., Agarwal, T. and Ray, S. (2010) Metallic Species in Ambient Particulate Matter at Rural and Urban Location of Delhi. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 175, 600-607.
[19] Goldschmidt, V.M. (1954) Geochemistry. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
[20] Schumacher, M., Bocio, A., Agramunt, M.C., Domingo, J.L. and De Kok, H.A.M. (2002) PCDD/F and Metal Concentrations in Soil and Herbage Samples Collected in the Vicinity of a Cement Plant. Chemosphere, 48, 209-217.
[21] Querol, X., Viana, M., Alastuey, A., Amato, F., Moreno, T. and Catillo, S. (2007) Source Origin of Trace Elements in PM from Regional Background, Urban and Industrial Sites of Spain. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 7219-7231.
[22] Santacatalina, M., Reche, C., Minguillon, M.C., Escrig, A., Sanfelix, V., Carratala, A., Nicolas, J.F., Yubero, E., Crespo, J., Alaustery, A., Monfort, E., Miro, J.V. and Querol, X. (2010) Impact of Fugitive Emissions in Ambient PM Levels and Composition. A Case Study in Southeast Spain. Science of the Total Environment, 408, 4999-5009.
[23] Chen, Y.Z., Shah, N., Huggins, F.E., Huffman, G.P., Linak, W.P. and Miller, C.A. (2004) Investigation of Primary Fine Particulate Matter from Coal Combustion by Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy. Fuel Processing Technology, 85, 743-761.
[24] Maenhaut, W., Francois, F., Cafmeyer, J. and Okunade, O. (1996) Size-Fractionated Aerosol Composition at Gent, Belgium. Results from a One-Year Study. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B, 109, 476-781.
[25] Lienemann, C.P., Dreyfus, S., Pecheyran, C. and Donard, O.F.X. (2007) Trace Metal Analysis in Petroleum Products: Sample Introduction Evaluation in ICP-OES and Comparison with an ICP-MS Approach. Oil & Gas Science and Technology, 62, 69-77.
[26] Mason, B. (1996) Principles of Geochemistry. Third Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken.
[27] Fang, G., Wu, Y., Huang, S. and Rau, J. (2005) Review of Atmospheric Metallic Elements in Asia during 2000-2004. Atmospheric Environment, 39, 3003-3013.
[28] Fang, G., Wu, Y., Wen, C., Huang, S. and Rau, J. (2006) Ambient Air Particulate Concentrations and Metallic Elements Principal Component Analysis at Taichung Harbor (TH) and WuChi Traffic (WT) near Taiwan Strait during 2004-2005. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 137, 314-323.
[29] Thomas, S. and Morawska, L. (2002) Size-Selected Particles in an Urban Atmosphere of Brisbane, Australia. Atmospheric Environment, 36, 4277-4288.
[30] Mackey, J.R., Watt, S.T., Cardy, C.A., Smith, S.I. and Meunier, C.A. (1991) Analysis of Additive Metals in Lubricating Oils. In: Nadkarni, R.A., Ed., Modem Instrumental Methods of Elemental Analysis of Petroleum Products and Lubricants. ASTM STP 1109. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 52-61.
[31] Mateu, J., Forteza, R., Cerda, V. and Colomaltes, M. (1995) Comparison of Various Methods for the Determination of Inorganic Species in Airborne Atmospheric Particulates. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 84, 61-79.
[32] Kumar, A.V., Patil, R.S. and Nambi, K.S.V. (2001) Source Apportionment of Suspended Particulate Matter at Two Traffic Junctions in Mumbai, India. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 4245-4251.
[33] Napier, F., D’Arcy, B. and Jefferies, C. (2008) A Review of Vehicle Related Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the UK Environment. Desalination, 226, 143-150.
[34] Tandon, A., Yadav, S. and Attri, A.K. (2008) City-Wide Sweeping a Source for Respirable Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 1064-1069.
[35] Thorpe, A. and Harrison, R.M. (2008) Sources and Properties of Non-Exhaust Particulate Matter from Road Traffic: A Review. Science of the Total Environment, 400, 270-282.
[36] Davidson, C.J. and Pacyna, J.M. (1986) Emission Factors of Atmospheric Elements. In: Nriagu, J.O. and Davidson, C.I., Eds., Toxic Metals in the Atmosphere, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 355-390.
[37] Ruth, O. (2003) The Effects of De-Icing in Helsinki Urban Streams, Southern Finland. Water Science and Technology, 48, 33-43.
[38] Blais, J.M., Schindler, D.W., Muir, D.C.G., Sharp, M., Donald, D., Lafreniere, M., Braekevelt, E. and Strachan, W.M.J. (2001) Melting Glaciers Are a Dominant Source of Persistent Organochlorines to Subalpine Bow Lake in Banff National Park, Canada. Ambio, 30, 410-415.
[39] Peters, A.J., Gregor, D.J., Teixeira, C.F., Jones, N.P. and Spencer, C. (1995) The Recent Depositional Trend of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Elemental Carbon to the Agassiz Ice Cap, Ellesmere Island, Canada. Science of the Total Environment, 160-161, 167-179.
[40] Donald, D.B., Syrgiannia, J., Crosley, R.W., Holdsworth, G., Muir, D.C.G., Rosenberg, B., Sole, A. and Schindler, D.W. (1999) Delayed Deposition of Organochlorine Pesticides at a Temperate Glacier. Environmental Science and Technology, 33, 1794-1798.
[41] Hong, S., Candelone, J.P., Patterson, C.C. and Bouton, C.F. (1994) Greenland Ice Evidence of Hemispheric Lead Pollution Two Millennia Ago by Greek and Roman Civilization. Science, 265, 1841-1843.
[42] Barbante, C., Veysseyre, A., Ferrari, C.P., Van De Velde, K., Morel, C., Capodaglio, G., Cescon, P., Scarponi, G. and Bouton, C. (2001) Greenland Snow Evidence of Large Scale Atmospheric Contamination for Platinum, Palladium and Rhodium. Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 835-839.
[43] Barbante, C., Bouton, C., Morel, C., Ferrari, C.P., Jaffrezo, J.I., Cozzi, G., Gaspari, V. and Cescon, P. (2003) Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals in Central Greenland Snow Deposited from 1991 to 1995. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 5, 328-335.
[44] McConnel, J.R. and Edwards, R. (2008) Coal Burning Leaves Toxic Heavy Metal Legacy in the Arctic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 12140-12144.
[45] Shotyk, W., Zheng, J., Krachler, M., Zdanowicz, C., Koerner, R.M. and Fischer, D. (2005) Predominance of Industrial Pb in Recent Snow (1994-2004) and Ice (1842-1996) from Devon Island, Arctic Canada. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, Article ID: L21814.
[46] Zheng, J., Shotyk, W., Krachler, M. and Fisher, D.A. (2007) A 15,800-Year Record of Atmospheric Lead Deposition on the Devon Island Ice Cap. Nunavut, Canada: Natural and Anthropogenic Enrichments, Isotopic Composition and Predominant Sources. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21, GB2027.
[47] Krachler, M., Zheng, J., Fisher, D. and Shotyk, W. (2008) Atmospheric Inputs of Ag and Tl to the Arctic: Comparison of a High Resolution Snow Pit (AD 1994-2004) with a Firn (AD 1860-1996) and an Ice Core (Previous 16,000 yr). Science of the Total Environment, 399, 78-89.
[48] Planchon, F.A.M., Boutron, C.F., Barbante, C., Cozzi, G., Gaspari, V., Wolff, E.W., Ferrari, C.P. and Cescon, P. (2002) Changes in Heavy Metals in Antarctic Snow from Coats Land since the Mid-19th to the Late-20th Century. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 200, 207-222.
[49] Gabrielli, P., Barbante, C., Boutron, C.F., Cozzi, G., Gaspari, V., Planchon, F., Ferrari, C. and Cescon, P. (2005) Variations in Atmosphere Trace Elements in Dome C (East Antarctica) Ice over the Last Two Climatic Cycles. Atmospheric Environment, 39, 6420-6429.
[50] Hur, S.D., Cunde, X., Hong, S., Barbante, C., Gabrielli, P., Lee, K., Boutron, C.F. and Ming, Y. (2007) Seasonal Patterns of Heavy Metal Deposition to the Snow on Lambert Glacier Basin, East Antarctica. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 8567-8578.
[51] Jitaru, P., Gabrielli, P., Marteel, A., Plane, J.M.C., Planchon, F.A.M., Gauchard, P.A., Ferrari, C.P., Boutron, C.F., Adams, F.C. and Hong, S. (2009) Atmospheric Depletion of Mercury over Antarctica during Glacier Periods. Nature Geoscience, 2, 505-508.
[52] Li, Z.Q., Li, C.J., Li, Y.F., Wang, F.T. and Li, H.I. (2007) Preliminary Results from Measurements of Selected Trace Metals in the Snowfirn Pack on Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Eastern Tien Shan, China. Journal of Glaciology, 53, 368-373.
[53] Liu, Y., Hou, S., Hong, S., Do Hur, S., Lee, K. and Wang, Y. (2011) High-Resolution Trace Element Records of an Ice Core from the Eastern Tien Shan, Central Asia, since 1953 AD. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, Article ID: D12307.
[54] Li, Y., Yao, T., Wang, N., Li, Z., Tian, I., Xu, B. and Wu, G. (2006) Recent Changes of Atmospheric Heavy Metals in a High-Elevation Ice Core from Muztagh Ata, East Pamirs: Initial Results. Annals of Glaciology, 43, 154-159.
[55] Li, Z., Yao, T., Tian, I., Xu, B. and Li, Y. (2006) Atmospheric Pb Variations in Central Asia since 1955 from Muztagata Ice Core Record, Eastern Pamirs. Chinese Science Bulletin, 51, 1996-2000.
[56] Aizen, V.B., Mayewski, P.A., Aizen, E.M., Joswiak, D.R., Surazakov, A.B., Kaspari, S., Grigholm, B., Krachler, M., Handley, M. and Finaev, A. (2009) Stable-Isotope and Trace Element Time Series from Fedchenko Glacier (Pamirs) Snow/Firn Cores. Journal of Glaciology, 55, 275-291.
[57] Kang, S., Zhang, Q., Kaspari, S., Qin, D., Cong, Z., Ren, J. and Mayewski, P.A. (2007) Spatial and Seasonal Variations of Elemental Composition in Mt. Everest (Qomolangma) Snow/Firn. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 7208-7218.
[58] Duan, J., Ren, J., Qin, X. and Li, Y. (2007) Heavy Metal Concentrations and Seasonal Variations in Snow of Mount Everest Region. Acta Geographica Sinica, 62, 22-29.
[59] Lee, K., Hur, D.S., Hou, S., Hong, S., Qin, X., Ren, J., Liu, Y., Rosman, K.J.R., Barbante, C. and Boutron, C.F. (2008) Atmospheric Pollution for Trace Elements in the Remote High-Altitude Atmosphere in Central Asia as Record in Snow from Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) of the Himalayas. Science of the Total Environment, 404, 171-181.
[60] Jickells, T.D., Davies, T.D., Tranter, M., Landsberger, S., Jarvis, K. and Abrahams, P. (1992) Trace Elements in Snow Samples from the Scottish Highlands: Sources and Dissolved/Particulate Distributions. Atmospheric Environment, 26, 393-401.
[61] Kay, J.E., Gillespie, A.R., Hansen, G.B. and Pettit, E.C. (2003) Spatial Relationship between Snow Contaminant Content, Grain Size and Surface Temperature from Multispectral Images of Mt. Rainier, Washington, (USA). Remote Sensing of Environment, 86, 216-231.
[62] Van De Velde, K., Ferrari, C.P., Barbante, C., Moret, I., Bellomi, T., Hong, S. and Boutron, C. (1999) A 200 Year Record of Atmospheric Cobalt, Chromium, Molybdenum and Antimony in High Altitude Alpine Firn and Ice. Environmental Science and Technology, 33, 3495-3501.
[63] Van De Velde, K., Barbante, C., Cozzi, G., Moret, I., Bellomi, T., Ferrari, C.P. and Boutron, C. (2000) Changes in the Occurrence of Silver, Gold, Platinum, Palladium and Rhodium in Mont Blanc Ice and Snow since the 18th Century. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 3117-3127.
[64] Van de Velde, K., Boutron, C.F., Ferrari, C.P., Moreau, A.L., Delmas, R.J., Barbante, C., Bellomi, T. and Capodoglio, G. (2000) A Two Hundred Years Record of Atmospheric Cadmium, Copper and Zinc Concentrations in High Altitude Snow and Ice from the French-Italian Alps. Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 249-252.
[65] Rosman, K.J.R., Ly, C., Van de Velde, K. and Boutron, C.F. (2000) A Two Century Record of Lead Isotopes in High Altitude Alpine Snow and Ice. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 176, 413-424.
[66] Barbante, C., Van de Velde, K., Cozzi, G., Capodoglio, G., Cescon, P., Planchon, F., Hong, S., Ferrari, C.P. and Boutron, C.F. (2001) Post-World War II Uranium Changes in Dated Mont Blanc Ice and Snow. Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 4026-4030.
[67] Barbante, C., Boutron, C.F., Moreau, A.L., Ferrari, C.P., Van de Velde, K., Cozzi, G., Turetta, C. and Cescon, P. (2002) Seasonal Variations in Nickel and Vanadium in Mont Blanc Snow and Ice Dated from the 1960s and 1990s. Journal of Environment Monitoring, 4, 960-966.
[68] Barbante, C., Schwikowski, M., Doring, T., Gaggeler, H.W., Schotterer, U., Tobler, L., Van De Velde, K., Ferrari, C.P., Cozzi, G. and Turetta, A. (2004) Historical Record of European Emissions of Heavy Metals to the Atmosphere since the 1650s from Alpine Snow/Ice Cores Drilled near Mont Rosa. Environmental Science and Technology, 38, 4085-4090.
[69] Herbert, B.M.J., Halsall, C.J., Fitzpatrick, L., Villa, S., Jones, K.C. and Thomas, G.O. (2004) Use and Validation of Novel Snow Samplers for Hydrophobic, Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs). Chemosphere, 56, 227-235.
[70] Hong, S., Barbante, C., Boutron, C.F., Gabrielli, P., Gaspari, V., Cescon, P., Thomson, D.S., Ferrarai, C.P., Francou, B. and Bourgoin, M. (2004) Atmospheric Heavy Metals in Tropical Sputh America during the Past 22,000 Years Recorded in a High Altitude Ice Core from Sajama, Bolivia. Journal of Environment Monitoring, 6, 222-226.
[71] Schwikowski, M., Barbante, C., Doering, T., Gaeggeler, H.W., Boutron, C., Schotterer, U., Tobler, I., Van De Velde, K., Ferrari, C. and Cozzi, G. (2004) Post-17th-Century Changes of European Lead Emissions Recorded in High-Altitude Alpine Snow and Ice. Environmental Science and Technology, 38, 957-964.
[72] Gabrielli, P., Cozzi, G., Torcini, S., Cescon, P. and Barbante, C. (2008) Trace Elements in Winter Snow of the Dolomites (Italy): A Statistical Study of Natural and Anthropogenic Contributions. Chemosphere, 72, 1504-1509.
[73] Telloli, C., Fazzini, M., Tassinari, R., Marrocchino, E. and Vaccaro, C. (2013) Monitoring of Solid Particulate Airborne Samples from Mountain Snow in Some Sites of the Alps, Italy. International Journal of Geosciences, 4, 711-723.
[74] Zinger, I. and Delisle, C.F. (1988) Quality of Used-Snow Discharged in the ST-Lawrence River, in the Region of the Montreal Harbor. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 39, 47-57.
[75] Boom, A. and Marsalek, J. (1988) Accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an Urban Snowpack. Science of the Total Environment, 74, 133-148.
[76] Viklander, M. (1996) Urban Snow Deposits—Pathways of Pollutants. Science of the Total Environment, 189-190, 379-384.
[77] Viklander, M. (1999) Substances in Urban Snow. A Comparison of the Contamination of Snow in Different Parts of the City of Lulea, Sweden. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 114, 377-394.
[78] Engelhard, C., De Toffol, S., Lek, I., Rauch, W. and Dallinger, R. (2007) Environmental Impacts of Urban Snow Management—The Alpine Case Study of Innsbruck. Science of the Total Environment, 382, 286-294.
[79] Bucko, M.S., Magiera, T., Johanson, B., Petrovsky, E. and Pesonen, L.J. (2011) Identification of Magnetic Particulates in Road Dust Accumulated on Roadside Snow Using Magnetic, Geochemical and Micro-Morphological Analyses. Environmental Pollution, 159, 1266-1276.
[80] Viskari, E.L., Rekila, R., Roy, S., Lehto, O., Ruuskanen, J. and Karenlampi, L. (1997) Airborne Pollutants along a Roadside: Assessment Using Snow Analyses and Moss Bags. Environmental Pollution, 97, 153-160.
[81] Hautala, E.L., Rekila, R., Tarhanen, J. and Ruuskanen, J. (1995) Deposition of Motor Vehicle Emissions and Winter Maintenance along Roadside Assessed by Snow Analyses. Environmental Pollution, 87, 45-49.
[82] Atteia, O. (1994) Major and Trace Elements in Precipitation on Western Switzerland. Atmospheric Environment, 28, 3617-3624.
[83] Poissant, L., Schmidt, J.P. and Béron, P. (1994) Trace Inorganic Elements in Rainfall in the Montreal Island. Atmospheric Environment, 28, 339-346.
[84] Poissant, L., Koprivnjak, J.F. and Matthieu, R. (1997) Some Persistent Organic Pollutants and Heavy Metals in the Atmosphere over a St Lawrence River Valley Site (Villeroy) in 1992. Chemosphere, 34, 567-585.
[85] Riemann, C., Niskavaara, H., De Caritat, P., Finne, T.E., Ayras, M. and Chebuskin, V. (1996) Regional Variations of Snowpack Chemistry in the Vicinity of Nickel and Zapoljarnij, Russia, Northern Finland and Norway. The Science of the Total Environment, 182, 147-158.
[86] Gregurek, D., Melcher, F., Niskavaara, H., Pavlov, V.A., Reimann, C. and Stumpfl, E.F. (1999) Platinum-Group Elements (Rh, Pt, Pb) and Au Distribution in Snow Samples from the Kola Peninsula, NW Russia. Atmospheric Environment, 33, 3281-3290.
[87] Simonetti, A., Gariepy, C. and Carignan, J. (2000) Pb and Sr Isotopic Compositions of Snowpack from Québec, Canada: Inferences on the Sources and Deposition Budgets of Atmospheric Heavy Metals. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta, 64, 5-20.
[88] Veysseyre, A., Moutard, K., Ferrari, C., Van de Velde, K., Barbante, C., Cozzi, G., Capodaglio, G. and Boutron, C. Heavy Metals in Fresh Snow Collected at Different Altitudes in Chamonix and Maurienne Valleys, French Alps: Initial Results. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 415-425.
[89] Westerlund, C. and Viklander, M. (2006) Particles and Associated Metals in Road Runoff during Snowmelt and Rainfall. Science of the Total Environment, 362, 143-156.
[90] Gregurek, D., Reimann, C. and Stumpfl, E.F. (1998) Trace Elements and Precious Metals in Snow Samples from the Immediate Vicinity of Nickel Processing Plants, Kola Peninsula, Northwest Russia. Environmental Pollution, 102, 221-232.
[91] Caritat, P.D., Ayras, M., Niskavaara, H., Chekushin, V., Bogatyrtev, I. and Reimann, C. (1998) Snow Composition in Eight Catchments in the Central Barents Euro-Arctic Region. Atmospheric Environment, 32, 2609-2626.
[92] Franz, T.P. and Eisenreich, S.J. (1998) Snow Scavenging of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Minnesota. Environmental Science and Technology, 32, 1771-1778.
[93] Wania, F., Semkin, R., Hoff, J.T. and Mackay, D. (1999) Modeling the Fate of Non-Polar Organic Chemicals during the Melting of an Arctic Snowpack. Hydrological Processes, 13, 2245-2256.<2245::AID-HYP889>3.0.CO;2-7
[94] Boutron, C.F. (1991) Historical Reconstruction of the Earth’s Past Atmospheric Environment from Greenland and Antarctic Snow and Ice Cores. Environmental Reviews, 3, 1-28.
[95] Townsend, A.T. and Edwards, R. (1998) Ultratrace Analysis of Antarctic Snow and Ice Samples Using High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 13, 463.
[96] Tranter, M., Brimblecombe, P., Davies, T.D., Vincent, C.E., Abrahams, P.W. and Blckwood, I. (1986) The Composition of Snowfall, Snowpack and Meltwater in the Scottish Highlands—Evidence for Preferential Elution. Atmospheric Environment, 20, 517-525.
[97] Tranter, M., Abrahams, P.W., Blackwood, I.L., Brimblecombe, P. and Davies, T.D. (1988) The Impact of a Single Black Snowfall on Stream Water Chemistry in the Scottish Highlands. Nature, 332, 826-829.
[98] Barrie, L., Lindburg, S., Chen, W., Ross, H., Arimoto, R. and Church, T. (1987) On the Concentrations of Trace Metals in Precipitation. Atmospheric Environment, 21, 113-1135.
[99] Jaffe, D.A. and Zukowski, M.D. (1993) Nitrate Deposition to the Alaskan Snowpack. Atmospheric Environment, 27A, 2935-2941.
[100] Shaw, G.E., Shaw, J.A. and Shaw, R.A. (1993) The Snows of Interior Alaska. Atmospheric Environment, 27A, 2091-2096.
[101] Colin, J.L., Lim, B., Herms, E., Genet, F., Drab, E., Jaffrezo, J.L. and Davidson, C.I. (1997) Air-to-Snow Mineral Transfer—Crustal Elements in Aerosols, Fresh Snow and Snow pits on the Greenland Ice Sheet. Atmospheric Environment, 31, 3395-3406.
[102] Walker, T.R., Young, S.D., Crittender, P.D. and Zhang, H. (2003) Anthropogenic Metal Enrichment of Snow and Soil in North-Eastern European Russia. Environmental Pollution, 121, 11-21.
[103] Bianchini, G., Laviano, R., Lovo, S. and Vaccaro, C. (2001) Chemical Mineralogical Characterization of Clay Sediments around Ferrara: A Tool for an Environmental Analysis. Applied Clay Sciences, 21, 165-176.
[104] Hiranuma, N., Brooks, S.D., Auvermann, B.W. and Littleton, R. (2008) Using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy to Determine the Hygroscopic Properties of Agricultural Aerosols. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 1983-1994.
[105] Haapala, H. (1998) The Use of SEM/EDX for Studying the Distribution of Air Pollutants in the Surroundings of the Emission Source. Environmental Pollution, 9, 361-363.
[106] Frankel, R.S. and Aitken, D.W. (1970) Energy Dispersive X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 24, 557-566.
[107] Wilkinson, K., Lundkvist, J., Seisenbaeva, G. and Kessler, V. (2011) New Tabletop SEM-EDS-Based Approach for Cost-Efficient Monitoring of Airborne Particulate Matter. Environmental Pollution, 159, 311-318.
[108] Yang, H.H., Hsieh, L.T. and Cheng, S.K. (2005) Determination of Atmospheric Nitrate Particulate Size Distribution and Dry Deposition Velocity for Three Distinct Areas. Chemosphere, 60, 1447-1453.
[109] Goodarzi, F. (2006) Morphology and Chemistry of Fine Particles Emitted from a Canadian Coal-Fired Power Plant. Fuel, 85, 273-280.
[110] De La Campa, A.M.S., De La Rosa, J., Querol, X., Alastuey, A. and Mantilla, E. (2007) Geochemistry and Origin of PM10 in the Huelva Region, Southwestern Spain. Environmental Research, 103, 305-316.
[111] Fromme, H., Diemer, J., Dietrich, S., Cyrys, J., Heinrich, J., Lang, W., Kiranoglu, M. and Twardella, D. (2008) Chemical and Morphological Properties of Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in School Classrooms and Outdoor Air. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 6597-6605.
[112] Campos-Ramos, A., Aragon-Pina, A., Galindo-Estrada, I., Querol, X. and Alastuey, A.(2009) Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols by SEM in a Rural Area in the Western Part of México and Its Relation with Different Pollution Sources. Atmospheric Environment, 43, 6159-6167.
[113] Telloli, C., Coren, F., Marrocchino, E. and Vaccaro, C. (2013) Vertical Profiles of Airborne PM in Po Valley during Wheat Harvest Activities. Advances in Natural Science, 6, 1-8.
[114] Taylor, S., Lever, J.H. and Harvey, R.P. (2000) Numbers, Types and Compositions of an Unbiased Collection of Cosmic Spherules. Meteoritic and Planetary Science, 55, 651-666.
[115] Genge, M.J., Engrand, C., Gounelle, M. and Taylor, S. (2008) The Classification of Micrometeorites. Meteoritic and Planetary Science, 43, 497-515.
[116] Glenn, D.W. and Sansalone, J.J. (2002) Accretion of Pollutants in Snow Exposed to Urban Traffic and Winter Storm Maintenance Activities. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 128, 167-185.
[117] ARPA Emilia Romagna—Report sulle acque superficiali e sotterranee delle citta dell’Emilia Romagna, 2009.
[118] Sansalone, J.J., Buchberger, S.G. and Koechling, M. (1995) Correlation between Heavy Metals and Suspended Solids in Highway Runoff. Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1483, 112-119.
[119] German, J. and Svensson, G. (2002) Metal Content and Particle Size Distribution of Street Sediments and Street Sweeping Waste. Water Science and Technology, 46, 191-198.
[120] Magil, N. and Sansalone, J. (2010) Distribution of Particulate-Bound Metals for Source Area Snow in the Lake Tahoe Watershed. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 136, 185-193.
[121] Geivanidis, S., Pistikopoulos, P. and Samaras, Z. (2003) Effect on Exhaust Emissions by the Use of Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl (MMT) Fuel Additive and Other Lead Replacement Gasoline. Science of the Total Environment, 305, 129-141.
[122] Helmerich, B., Hilliges, R., Schriewer, A. and Horn, H. (2010) Runoff Pollutants of a Highly Trafficked Urban Road-Correlation Analysis and Seasonal Influences. Chemosphere, 80, 991-997.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.