Some Consequences of Zero Point Energy


Both theory and experiments indicate that the vacuum is not a state of empty space, but is populated by electromagnetic fluctuations at a lowest nonzero level, the Zero Point Energy (ZPE). This debouches into considerable changes of fundamental physics, as shown by a revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED) applied to elementary particles, and by a revised ZPE frequency spectrum applied to the expanding universe. The Standard Model based on a vacuum state of empty space is thus replaced by RQED, thereby resulting in massive elementary particles from the beginning, independently of the theory by Higgs. Also the basic properties of the Higgs-like particle detected at CERN can be reproduced by RQED. It further leads to new fundamental results beyond the theories by Dirac and Higgs, such as to a deduced value of the elementary net charge, magnetic confinement of charged particle configurations, intrinsic local particle charges, photon spin with a very small but nonzero photon rest mass, and needle-like particle-wave properties which contribute to the understanding of the photoelectric effect and two-slit experiments. The real macroscopic pressure due to the revised ZPE frequency distribution further influences the dynamics of the expanding universe, by the ZPE photon pressure gradient acting as dark energy, and the ZPE photon energy density acting as dark matter. This results in a model being consistent with the observed scale, the rate of expansion, and the stability of a flat expanding observable universe.

Share and Cite:

Lehnert, B. (2014) Some Consequences of Zero Point Energy. Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, 6, 319-327. doi: 10.4236/jemaa.2014.610032.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Pauling, L. and Wilson, E.B (1935) Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. McGraw-Hill Book Comp., Inc., New York and London, 72.
[2] Schiff, L. (1949) Quantum Mechanics. McGraw-Hill Book Comp., Inc., New York-Toronto-London, 62, 370, 388.
[3] Abbott, L. (1988) The Mystery of the Cosmological Constant. Scientific American, 258, 106-113.
[4] Casimir, H.B.G. (1948) On the Attraction between Two Perfectly Conducting Plates. Proc.Ned.Akad.Wet., 51, 793-795.
[5] Lamoreaux, S.K. (1997) Demonstration of the Casimir Force in the 0.6 to 6 μm Range. Physical Review Letters, 78, 5-8.
[6] Milonni, P.W. (1994) The Quantum Vacuum. American Press, Inc., Harcourt Brace and Company, Publishers, Boston, San Diego, New York, London, Sydney, Tokyo and Toronto.
[7] Lehnert, B. (2013) Revised Quantum Electrodynamics. In: Dvoeglazov, V.V., Ed, Contemporary Fundamental Physics, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York.
[8] Lehnert, B. (2013) Potentialities of Revised Quantum Electrodynamics. Progress in Physics, 4, 48-52.
[9] Lehnert, B. (2013) Dark Energy and Dark Matter as due to Zero Point Energy. Journal of Plasma Physics, 79, 327-334.
[10] Morse, P.M. and Feshbach, H. (1953) Methods of Theoretical Physics. McGraw-Hill Book Comp., Inc., New York, Toronto, London, Part I, Ch. 2, Paragraph 2.5, 208-209, 260.
[11] Quigg, C. (2008) The Coming Revolution in Particle Physics. Scientific American, 298, 46-53.
[12] Heitler, W. (1954) The Quantum Theory of Radiation. 3rd Edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford, Appendix, 409, 57, 326.
[13] Lehnert, B. (2013) Higgs-Like Particle due to Revised Quantum Electrodynamics. Progress in Physics, 4, 31-32.
[14] Lehnert, B. (2014) Mass-Radius Relations of Z and Higgs-Like Bosons. Progress in Physics, 10, 5-7.
[15] Higgs, P.W. (1966) Spontaneous Symmetry Breakdown without Massless Bosons. Physical Review, 145, 1156-1168.
[16] Aad, G., Abajyan, T., Abbott, B., Abdallah, J., Khalek, S.A., Abdelalim, A.A., et al. (2012) Observation of a New Particle in the Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC. Physics Letters B, 716, 1-29.
[17] Chatrchyan, S., Khachatryan, V., Sirunyan, A.M., Tumasyan, A., Adam, W., Aguilo, E., et al. (2012) CMS Collaboration. Observation of a New Boson at a Mass of 125 GeV with the CMS Experiment at the LHC. Physics Letters B, 716, 30-61.
[18] Ryder, L.H. (1966) Quantum Field Theory. 2nd Edition, Chapter 9, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[19] Lehnert, B. (2010) Deduced Fundamental Properties of the Electron. International Review of Physics (IREPHY), 4, 1-6.
[20] Lehnert, B. and Hook, J. (2010) An Electron Model with Elementary Charge. Journal of Plasma Physics, 76, 419-428.
[21] Lehnert, B. and Scheffel, J. (2002) On the Minimum Elementary Charge of an Extended Electromagnetic Theory. Physica Scripta, 65, 200-207.
[22] Lehnert, B. (2013) Intrinsic Charges and the Strong Force. Progress in Physics, 4, 17-20.
[23] Lehnert, B. (2013) On the Angular Momentum and Rest Mass of the Photon. Journal of Plasma Physics, 79, 1133-1135.
[24] Lehnert, B. (2011) The Individual Photon in Two-slit Experiments. International Review of Physics (IREPHY), 5, 15-18.
[25] Lehnert, B. (2005) Screw-Shaped Light in Extended Electromagnetics. Physica Scripta, 72, 359-365.
[26] Lehnert, B. (2006) Boundary Conditions and Spin of a Dense Light Beam. Physica Scripta, 74, 139-144.
[27] Recami, E. (1986) Classical Tachyons and Possible Applications. La Rivista Del Nuovo Cimento, 9, 1-78.
[28] Bilaniuk, O.M, Deshpande, V.K. and Sudarshan, E.C.G (1962) “Meta” Relativity. American Journal of Physics, 30, 718-723.
[29] Rabounski, D. and Borissova, L. (2014) General Relativity Theory Explains the Sholl Effect and Makes Possible Forecasting Earthquakes and Weather Cataclysms. Progress in Physics, 10, 63-70.
[30] Terletskii, Y.D. (1971) Statistical Physics. North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, London.
[31] Loudon, R. (2000) The Quantum Theory of Light. 3rd Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
[32] Riess, A.G. and Turner, M.S. (2004) From Slowdown to Speedup. Scientific American, 50-55.
[33] Lehnert, B. (2009) Dark Energy and Matter of the Expanding Universe. Progress in Physics, 2, 77-82.
[34] Lehnert, B. (2011) A Zero Point Distribution of Finite Density. International Review of Physics (IREPHY), 3, 304-308.
[35] Lehnert, B. (2013) Extended Analysis of the Casimir Force. Progress in Physics, 10, 74-76.
[36] Linde, A. (1994) The Self-Reproducing Inflatory Universe. Scientific American, 32-39.
[37] Lehnert, B. (2013) On a Flat Expanding Universe. Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics, 7, 191-197.
[38] Lehnert, B. (2011) The Point Mass Concept. Progress in Physics, 2, 15-19.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.