Self-Organization and Coherency in Biology and Medicine


Self-organization has proven to be a universal functioning property inherent to the open systems, including biological entities and living organisms. The flux of energy or matter through the system enables its transition to a new ordered state, which results from a cooperative behavior of the system’s constituents. The system functions far from thermodynamic equilibrium and its transitions between the states are treated within nonlinear models. An analysis of such behavior yields valuable information about the emergent properties of the particular system that is often impossible to obtain by other methods. This review summarizes some of the most interesting, recently reported phenomena related to dynamic self-organization and coherency at various complexity levels in living matter, demonstrating the widespread applications of these concepts in many modern fields of biological and healthcare research. The processes and interactions controlling self-organized behaviors are discussed in regards to molecular reactions, including mechanisms of protein folding, bioenergetics, and charge transfer. Phenomena in cells and tissues, as well as the examples of whole organs and organism levels are also reviewed. In addition, we analyze existing applications of self-organization and coherency processes in medicine. Special attention is given to determination of feedback mechanisms, control parameters, and order parameters needed to completely define the self-organized behavior and coherent dynamics of a particular system.

Share and Cite:

Goushcha, A. , Hushcha, T. , Christophorov, L. and Goldsby, M. (2014) Self-Organization and Coherency in Biology and Medicine. Open Journal of Biophysics, 4, 119-146. doi: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2014.44014.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Laughlin, R. and Pines, D. (2000) The Theory of Everything. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 28-31.
[2] Baker, S.G. and Kramer, B.S. (2011) Systems Biology and Cancer: Promises and Perils. Progress in Biophysics & Molecular Biology, 106, 410-413.
[3] Laughlin, R., Pines, D., Schmalian, J., Stojkovic, B. and Wolynes, P. (2000) The Middle Way. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 32-37.
[4] Noble, D. (2002) Modeling the Heart—From Genes to Cells to the Whole Organ. Science, 295, 1678-1682.
[5] Qu, Z., Garfinkel, A., Weiss, J.N. and Nivala, M. (2011) Multi-Scale Modeling in Biology: How to Bridge the Gaps between Scales? Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 107, 21-31.
[6] Nicolis, G. and Prigogine, I. (1977) Self-Organization in Nonequilibrium Systems: From Dissipative Structures to Order through Fluctuations. Wiley, New York.
[7] Prigogine, I. (1968) Introduction to Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes. Interscience Publishers, New York.
[8] Haken, H. (1983) Advanced Synergetics: Instability Hierarchies of Self-Organizing Systems and Devices. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, New York.
[9] Haken, H. (1983) Synergetics: An Introduction: Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions and Self-Organization in Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Springer, Berlin.
[10] Haken, H. (1996) Slaving Principle Revisited. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, 97, 95-103.
[11] Benettin, G., Galgani, L. and Strelcyn, J.-M. (1976) Kolmogorov Entropy and Numerical Experiments. Physical Review A, 14, 2338-2345.
[12] Argoul, F. and Arneodo, A. (1986) Lyapunov Exponents and Phase Transitions in Dynamical Systems. In: Arnold, L. and Wihstutz, V., Eds., Lyapunov Exponents, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 338-360.
[13] Colonna, M. and Bonasera, A. (1999) Lyapunov Exponents in Unstable Systems. Physical Review E, Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids and Related Interdisciplinary Topics, 60, 444-448.
[14] Luque, B. and Solé, R.V. (2000) Lyapunov Exponents in Random Boolean Networks. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications, 284, 33-45.
[15] Prasad, A., Mehra, V. and Ramaswamy, R. (1997) Intermittency Route to Strange Nonchaotic Attractors. Physical Review Letters, 79, 4127-4130.
[16] Schrodinger, E. (1944) What Is Life? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[17] Frohlich, H. (1968) Long-Range Coherence and Energy Storage in Biological Systems. International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, 2, 641-649.
[18] Frohlich, H. (1978) Coherent Electric Vibrations in Biological Systems and the Cancer Problem. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 26, 613-618.
[19] Davydov, A.S. (1977) Solitons and Energy-Transfer along Protein Molecules. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 66, 377- 387.
[20] Cruzeiro-Hansson, L. and Takeno, S. (1997) Davydov Model: The Quantum, Mixed Quantum-Classical and Full Classical Systems. Physical Review E, 56, 894-906.
[21] Daniel, M. and Deepamala, K. (1995) Davydov Soliton in Alpha-Helical Proteins: Higher-Order and Discreteness Effects. Physica A, 221, 241-255.
[22] Hochstrasser, D., Mertens, F. and Buttner, H. (1989) Energy-Transport by Lattice Solitons in Alpha-Helical Proteins. Physical Review A, 40, 2602-2610.
[23] Scott, A. (1992) Davydovs Soliton. Physics Reports, 217, 1-67.
[24] Edler, J., Pfister, R., Pouthier, V., Falvo, C. and Hamm, P. (2004) Direct Observation of Self-Trapped Vibrational States in Alpha-Helices. Physical Review Letters, 93, Article ID: 106405.
[25] Turing, A. (1952) The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 237, 37-72.
[26] Kauffman, S.A. (1993) The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution. Oxford University Press, New York.
[27] Aragón, J.L., Barrio, R.A., Woolley, T.E., Baker, R.E. and Maini, P.K. (2012) Nonlinear Effects on Turing Patterns: Time Oscillations and Chaos. Physical Review E, 86, Article ID: 026201.
[28] Volpert, V. and Petrovskii, S. (2009) Reaction-Diffusion Waves in Biology. Physics of Life Reviews, 6, 267-310.
[29] Eigen, M. (1971) Self-Organization of Matter and the Evolution of Biological Macromolecules. Naturwissenschaften, 58, 465-523.
[30] Gatenby, R.A. and Frieden, B.R. (2013) The Critical Roles of Information and Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics in Evolution of Living Systems. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 75, 589-601.
[31] Glass, L. (2001) Synchronization and Rhythmic Processes in Physiology. Nature, 410, 277-284.
[32] Camazine, S., Ed. (2001) Self-Organization in Biological Systems. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
[33] Friston, K. (2012) A Free Energy Principle for Biological Systems. Entropy, 14, 2100-2121.
[34] Karsenti, E. (2008) Self-Organization in Cell Biology: A Brief History. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 9, 255-262.
[35] Kurakin, A. (2009) Scale-Free Flow of Life: On the Biology, Economics and Physics of the Cell. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, 6, 6.
[36] Misteli, T. (2001) The Concept of Self-Organization in Cellular Architecture. The Journal of Cell Biology, 155, 181-186.
[37] Rabinovich, M., Varona, P., Selverston, A. and Abarbanel, H. (2006) Dynamical Principles in Neuroscience. Reviews of Modern Physics, 78, 1213-1265.
[38] Sasai, Y. (2013) Cytosystems Dynamics in Self-Organization of Tissue Architecture. Nature, 493, 318-326.
[39] Smith, N., Mulquiney, P., Nash, M., Bradley, C., Nickerson, D. and Hunter, P. (2002) Mathematical Modeling of the Heart: Cell to Organ. Chaos Solitons & Fractals, 13, 1613-1621.
[40] Bizzarri, M., Palombo, A. and Cucina, A. (2013) Theoretical Aspects of Systems Biology. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 112, 33-43.
[41] Coffey, D. (1998) Self-Organization, Complexity and Chaos: The New Biology for Medicine. Nature Medicine, 4, 882-885.
[42] Saetzler, K., Sonnenschein, C. and Soto, A.M. (2011) Systems Biology beyond Networks: Generating Order from Disorder through Self-Organization. Seminars in Cancer Biology, 21, 165-174.
[43] Levinthal, C. (1968) Are There Pathways for Protein Folding? Journal de Chimie Physique et de Physico-Chimie Biologique, 65, 44-45.
[44] Fromherz, P. (1988) Self-Organization of the Fluid Mosaic of Charged Channel Proteins in Membranes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 85, 6353-6357.
[45] Binhi, V.N. and Rubin, A.B. (2007) Magnetobiology: The kT Paradox and Possible Solutions. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 26, 45-62.
[46] Bryngelson, J., Onuchic, J., Socci, N. and Wolynes, P. (1995) Funnels, Pathways and the Energy Landscape of Protein-Folding: A Synthesis. Proteins-Structure Function and Genetics, 21, 167-195.
[47] Fersht, A. (1997) Nucleation Mechanisms in Protein Folding. Current Opinion in Structural Biology, 7, 3-9.
[48] Leopold, P., Montal, M. and Onuchic, J. (1992) Protein Folding Funnels: A Kinetic Approach to the Sequence Structure Relationship. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 89, 8721-8725.
[49] Dill, K.A. and MacCallum, J.L. (2012) The Protein-Folding Problem, 50 Years On. Science, 338, 1042-1046.
[50] Wolynes, P.G. (2005) Energy Landscapes and Solved Protein—Folding Problems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 363, 453-467.
[51] Lundgren, M., Krokhotin, A. and Niemi, A.J. (2013) Topology and Structural Self-Organization in Folded Proteins. Physical Review E, 88, Article ID: 042709. 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.042709
[52] Vendruscolo, M., Zurdo, J., MacPhee, C.E. and Dobson, C.M. (2003) Protein Folding and Misfolding: A Paradigm of Self-Assembly and Regulation in Complex Biological Systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 361, 1205-1222.
[53] Gerstman, B. and Chapagain, P. (2005) Self-Organization in Protein Folding and the Hydrophobic Interaction. Journal of Chemical Physics, 123, Article ID: 054901.
[54] Malinovska, L., Kroschwald, S. and Alberti, S. (2013) Protein Disorder, Prion Propensities and Self-Organizing Macromolecular Collectives. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)—Proteins and Proteomics, 1834, 918-931.
[55] Nelson, E. and Onuchic, J. (1998) Proposed Mechanism for Stability of Proteins to Evolutionary Mutations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95, 10682-10686.
[56] Batey, S., Randles, L., Steward, A. and Clarke, J. (2005) Cooperative Folding in a Multi-Domain Protein. Journal of Molecular Biology, 349, 1045-1059.
[57] Finkelstein, A.V. and Galzitskaya, O.V. (2004) Physics of Protein Folding. Physics of Life Reviews, 1, 23-56.
[58] Kuznetsova, I., Turoverov, K. and Uversky, V. (2004) Use of the Phase Diagram Method to Analyze the Protein Unfolding-Refolding Reactions: Fishing out the “Invisible” Intermediates. Journal of Proteome Research, 3, 485-494.
[59] Lin, M.M. and Zewail, A.H. (2012) Protein Folding—Simplicity in Complexity. Annalen Der Physik, 524, 379-391.
[60] Vendruscolo, M. and Dobson, C.M. (2005) Towards Complete Descriptions of the Free-Energy Landscapes of Proteins. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 363, 433-452.
[61] Wong, G.C.L. and Pollack, L. (2010) Electrostatics of Strongly Charged Biological Polymers: Ion-Mediated Interactions and Self-Organization in Nucleic Acids and Proteins. Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, 61, 171-189.
[62] Komar, A.A. (2009) A Pause for Thought along the Co-Translational Folding Pathway. Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 34, 16-24.
[63] Pechmann, S. and Frydman, J. (2013) Evolutionary Conservation of Codon Optimality Reveals Hidden Signatures of Cotranslational Folding. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 20, 237-243.
[64] Simister, P.C., Schaper, F., O’Reilly, N., McGowan, S. and Feller, S.M. (2011) Self-Organization and Regulation of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins with Folded N-Termini. Plos Biology, 9, e1000591.
[65] Astumian, R.D. (1997) Thermodynamics and Kinetics of a Brownian Motor. Science, 276, 917-922.
[66] Jülicher, F., Ajdari, A. and Prost, J. (1997) Modeling Molecular Motors. Reviews of Modern Physics, 69, 1269-1282.
[67] Surrey, T., Nedelec, F., Leibler, S. and Karsenti, E. (2001) Physical Properties Determining Self-Organization of Motors and Microtubules. Science, 292, 1167-1171.
[68] Geislinger, B., Darnell, E., Farris, K. and Kawai, R. (2005) Are Motor Proteins Power Strokers, Brownian Motors or Both? (Invited Paper). In: Kish, L.B., Lindenberg, K. and Gingl, Z., Eds., Proceedings of SPIE 5845, Noise in Complex Systems and Stochastic Dynamics III, 93-103.
[69] Ge, H. and Qian, H. (2013) Dissipation, Generalized Free Energy and a Self-Consistent Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Chemically Driven Open Subsystems. Physical Review E, 87, Article ID: 062125.
[70] Howard, J. (2009) Mechanical Signaling in Networks of Motor and Cytoskeletal Proteins. Annual Review of Biophysics, 38, 217-234.
[71] Vogel, S.K., Pavin, N., Maghelli, N., Jülicher, F. and Tolic-Norrelykke, I.M. (2010) Microtubules and Motor Proteins: Mechanically Regulated Self-Organization in Vivo. The European Physical Journal Special Topics, 178, 57-69.
[72] Hodgkin, A. and Huxley, A. (1952) A Quantitative Description of Membrane Current and Its Application to Conduction and Excitation in Nerve. Journal of Physiology-London, 117, 500-544.
[73] Hodgkin, A. (1964) The Ionic Basis of Nervous Conduction. Science, 145, 1148-1154.
[74] Hilt, M. and Zimmermann, W. (2007) Hexagonal, Square and Stripe Patterns of the Ion Channel Density in Biomembranes. Physical Review E, 75, Article ID: 016202.
[75] Leonetti, M., Nuebler, J. and Homble, F. (2006) Parity-Breaking Bifurcation and Global Oscillation in Patterns of Ion Channels. Physical Review Letters, 96, Article ID: 218101.
[76] Jensen, M.O., Jogini, V., Borhani, D.W., Leffler, A.E., Dror, R.O. and Shaw, D.E. (2012) Mechanism of Voltage Gating in Potassium Channels. Science, 336, 229-233.
[77] Chinarov, V., Gaididei, Y., Kharkyanen, V. and Sitko, S. (1992) Ion Pores in Biological-Membranes as Self-Organized Bistable Systems. Physical Review A, 46, 5232-5241.
[78] Amaral, C., Carnevale, V., Klein, M.L. and Treptow, W. (2012) Exploring Conformational States of the Bacterial Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel NavAb via Molecular Dynamics Simulations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, 21336-21341.
[79] Bjelkmar, P., Niemela, P.S., Vattulainen, I. and Lindahl, E. (2009) Conformational Changes and Slow Dynamics through Microsecond Polarized Atomistic Molecular Simulation of an Integral Kv1.2 Ion Channel. PLoS Computational Biology, 5, e1000289.
[80] Haider, S., Grottesi, A., Hall, B.A., Ashcroft, F.M. and Sansom, M.S.P. (2005) Conformational Dynamics of the Ligand-Binding Domain of Inward Rectifier K Channels as Revealed by Molecular Dynamics Simulations: Toward an Understanding of Kir Channel Gating. Biophysical Journal, 88, 3310-3320.
[81] McCusker, E.C., Bagneris, C., Naylor, C.E., Cole, A.R., D’Avanzo, N., Nichols, C.G., et al. (2012) Structure of a Bacterial Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Pore Reveals Mechanisms of Opening and Closing. Nature Communications, 3, Article Number: 1102.
[82] Payandeh, J., Scheuer, T., Zheng, N. and Catterall, W.A. (2011) The Crystal Structure of a Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel. Nature, 475, 353-358.
[83] Tayefeh, S., Kloss, T., Kreim, M., Gebhardt, M., Baumeister, D., Hertel, B., et al. (2009) Model Development for the Viral Kcv Potassium Channel. Biophysical Journal, 96, 485-498.
[84] Vargas, E., Yarov-Yarovoy, V., Khalili-Araghi, F., Catterall, W.A., Klein, M.L., Tarek, M., et al. (2012) An Emerging Consensus on Voltage-Dependent Gating from Computational Modeling and Molecular Dynamics Simulations. The Journal of General Physiology, 140, 587-594.
[85] Christophorov, L.N., Kharkyanen, V.N. and Sit’ko, S.P. (1991) On the Concept of the Non-Equilibrium Conformon (Self-Organization of a Selected Degree of Freedom in Biomolecular Systems). Journal of Biological Physics, 18, 191-202.
[86] Zarubin, D., Zhuchkova, E. and Schreiber, S. (2012) Effects of Cooperative Ion-Channel Interactions on the Dynamics of Excitable Membranes. Physical Review E, 85, Article ID: 061904.
[87] Park, C., Shcheglovitov, A. and Dolmetsch, R. (2010) The CRAC Channel Activator STIM1 Binds and Inhibits L- Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels. Science, 330, 101-105.
[88] Jung, P., Swaminathan, D. and Ullah, A. (2010) Calcium Spikes: Chance or Necessity? Chemical Physics, 375, 625- 629.
[89] Katona, G., Snijder, A., Gourdon, P., Andréasson, U., Hansson, U., Andréasson, L.-E., et al. (2005) Conformational Regulation of Charge Recombination Reactions in a Photosynthetic Bacterial Reaction Center. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 12, 630-631.
[90] Kleinfeld, D., Okamura, M. and Feher, G. (1984) Electron-Transfer Kinetics in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers Cooled to Cryogenic Temperatures in the Charge-Separated State—Evidence for Light-Induced Structural-Changes. Biochemistry, 23, 5780-5786.
[91] Kononenko, A., Noks, P., Chamorovskii, S., Rubin, A., Likhtenshtein, G., Krupyanskii, Y., et al. (1986) Electron-Transfer and Intermolecular Dynamics of Photosynthetic Reaction Centers. Khimicheskaya Fizika, 5, 795-804.
[92] Wohri, A.B., Katona, G., Johansson, L.C., Fritz, E., Malmerberg, E., Andersson, M., et al. (2010) Light-Induced Structural Changes in a Photosynthetic Reaction Center Caught by Laue Diffraction. Science, 328, 630-633.
[93] Christophorov, L.N. (1995) Conformation-Dependent Charge-Transport—A New Stochastic Approach. Physics Letters A, 205, 14-17.
[94] Goushcha, A.O., Kharkyanen, V., Scott, G. and Holzwarth, A. (2000) Self-Regulation Phenomena in Bacterial Reaction Centers. I. General Theory. Biophysical Journal, 79, 1237-1252.
[95] Andréasson, U. and Andréasson, L.-E. (2003) Characterization of a Semi-Stable, Charge-Separated State in Reaction Centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Photosynthesis Research, 75, 223-233.
[96] Deshmukh, S.S., Williams, J.C., Allen, J.P. and Kalman, L. (2011) Light-Induced Conformational Changes in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers: Dielectric Relaxation in the Vicinity of the Dimer. Biochemistry, 50, 340-348.
[97] Malferrari, M., Mezzetti, A., Francia, F. and Venturoli, G. (2013) Effects of Dehydration on Light-Induced Conformational Changes in Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Centers Probed by Optical and Differential FTIR Spectroscopy. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)—Bioenergetics, 1827, 328-339.
[98] Christophorov, L.N. and Kharkyanen, V.N. (2005) Synergetic Mechanisms of Structural Regulation of the Electron Transfer and Other Reactions of Biological Macromolecules. Chemical Physics, 319, 330-341.
[99] Christophorov, L.N., Kharkyanen, V.N. and Berezetskaya, N.M. (2013) Molecular Self-Organization: A Single Molecule Aspect. Chemical Physics Letters, 583, 170-174.
[100] Tributsch, H. and Pohlmann, L. (1997) Synergetic Electron Transfer in Molecular Electronic and Photosynthetic Mechanisms. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 438, 37-41.
[101] Kirchhoff, H., Haase, W., Haferkamp, S., Schott, T., Borinski, M., Kubitscheck, U., et al. (2007) Structural and Functional Self-Organization of Photosystem II in Grana Thylakoids. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)—Bioenergetics, 1767, 1180-1188.
[102] Engel, G.S., Calhoun, T.R., Read, E.L., Ahn, T.-K., Mancal, T., Cheng, Y.-C., et al. (2007) Evidence for Wavelike Energy Transfer through Quantum Coherence in Photosynthetic Systems. Nature, 446, 782-786.
[103] Novoderezhkin, V., Monshouwer, R. and van Grondelle, R. (2000) Electronic and Vibrational Coherence in the Core Light-Harvesting Antenna of Rhodopseudomonas viridis. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 104, 12056-12071.
[104] Prokhorenko, V., Holzwarth, A., Nowak, F. and Aartsma, T. (2002) Growing-In of Optical Coherence in the FMO Antenna Complexes. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 106, 9923-9933.
[105] Collini, E., Wong, C.Y., Wilk, K.E., Curmi, P.M.G., Brumer, P. and Scholes, G.D. (2010) Coherently Wired Light- Harvesting in Photosynthetic Marine Algae at Ambient Temperature. Nature, 463, 644-647.
[106] Hildner, R., Brinks, D., Nieder, J.B., Cogdell, R.J. and van Hulst, N.F. (2013) Quantum Coherent Energy Transfer over Varying Pathways in Single Light-Harvesting Complexes. Science, 340, 1448-1451.
[107] Levitz, J., Pantoja, C., Gaub, B., Janovjak, H., Reiner, A., Hoagland, A., et al. (2013) Optical Control of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors. Nature Neuroscience, 16, 507-516.
[108] Vasiliauskas, D., Mazzoni, E.O., Sprecher, S.G., Brodetskiy, K., Johnston Jr., R.J., Lidder, P., et al. (2011) Feedback from Rhodopsin Controls Rhodopsin Exclusion in Drosophila Photoreceptors. Nature, 479, 108-112.
[109] Field, G.D. and Rieke, F. (2002) Mechanisms Regulating Variability of the Single Photon Responses of Mammalian Rod Photoreceptors. Neuron, 35, 733-747.
[110] Whitlock, G. and Lamb, T. (1999) Variability in the Time Course of Single Photon Responses from Toad Rods Termination of Rhodopsin's Activity. Neuron, 23, 337-351.
[111] Caruso, G., Bisegna, P., Andreucci, D., Lenoci, L., Gurevich, V.V., Hamm, H.E., et al. (2011) Identification of Key Factors That Reduce the Variability of the Single Photon Response. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 7804-7807.
[112] Pumir, A., Graves, J., Ranganathan, R. and Shraiman, B.I. (2008) Systems Analysis of the Single Photon Response in Invertebrate Photoreceptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 10354-10359.
[113] Smith, E., Krishnamurthy, S., Fontana, W. and Krakauer, D. (2011) Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions in Biomolecular Signal Transduction. Physical Review E, 84, Article ID: 051917.
[114] Prokhorenko, V., Nagy, A.M., Waschuk, S.A., Brown, L.S., Birge, R.R. and Miller, R.J.D. (2006) Coherent Control of Retinal Isomerization in Bacteriorhodopsin. Science, 313, 1257-1261.
[115] Kraack, J.P., Buckup, T. and Motzkus, M. (2013) Coherent High-Frequency Vibrational Dynamics in the Excited Electronic State of All-Trans Retinal Derivatives. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 4, 383-387.
[116] Weingart, O. and Garavelli, M. (2012) Modelling Vibrational Coherence in the Primary Rhodopsin Photoproduct. Journal of Chemical Physics, 137, Article ID: 22A523.
[117] Liebl, U., Lipowski, G., Negrerie, M., Lambry, J., Martin, J. and Vos, M. (1999) Coherent Reaction Dynamics in a Bacterial Cytochrome C Oxidase. Nature, 401, 181-184.
[118] Varga, V., Leduc, C., Bormuth, V., Diez, S. and Howard, J. (2009) Kinesin-8 Motors Act Cooperatively to Mediate Length-Dependent Microtubule Depolymerization. Cell, 138, 1174-1183.
[119] Julicher, F., Kruse, K., Prost, J. and Joanny, J. (2007) Active Behavior of the Cytoskeleton. Physics Reports, 449, 3-28.
[120] Sumino, Y., Nagai, K.H., Shitaka, Y., Tanaka, D., Yoshikawa, K., Chate, H., et al. (2012) Large-Scale Vortex Lattice Emerging from Collectively Moving Microtubules. Nature, 483, 448-452.
[121] Hussain, S., Molloy, J.E. and Khan, S.M. (2013) Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Actomyosin Networks. Biophysical Journal, 105, 1456-1465.
[122] Bornens, M. (1989) The Cortical Microfilament System of Lymphoblasts Displays a Periodic Oscillatory Activity in the Absence of Microtubules: Implications for Cell Polarity. The Journal of Cell Biology, 109, 1071-1083.
[123] Pelling, A.E. (2004) Local Nanomechanical Motion of the Cell Wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Science, 305, 1147- 1150.
[124] Levayer, R. and Lecuit, T. (2012) Biomechanical Regulation of Contractility: Spatial Control and Dynamics. Trends in Cell Biology, 22, 61-81.
[125] Bendix, P.M., Koenderink, G.H., Cuvelier, D., Dogic, Z., Koeleman, B.N., Brieher, W.M., et al. (2008) A Quantitative Analysis of Contractility in Active Cytoskeletal Protein Networks. Biophysical Journal, 94, 3126-3136.
[126] Koehler, S., Schaller, V. and Bausch, A.R. (2011) Collective Dynamics of Active Cytoskeletal Networks. PLoS ONE, 6, e23798.
[127] Wang, S. and Wolynes, P. (2012) Active Contractility in Actomyosin Networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, 6446-6451.
[128] Salbreux, G., Joanny, J.F., Prost, J. and Pullarkat, P. (2007) Shape Oscillations of Non-Adhering Fibroblast Cells. Physical Biology, 4, 268-284.
[129] Chay, T. and Lee, Y. (1985) Phase Resetting and Bifurcation in the Ventricular Myocardium. Biophysical Journal, 47, 641-651.
[130] Jung, P. and Gailey, P.C. (2000) The Heartbeat of Extended Clocks. Annalen der Physik, 9, 697-704.<697::AID-ANDP697>3.0.CO;2-B
[131] Qu, Z., Nivala, M. and Weiss, J.N. (2013) Calcium Alternans in Cardiac Myocytes: Order from Disorder. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, 58, 100-109.
[132] Cheng, H., Lederer, M., Lederer, W. and Cannell, M. (1996) Calcium Sparks and [Ca2+]i Waves in Cardiac Myocytes. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, 270, C148-C159.
[133] Lechleiter, J., Girard, S., Peralta, E. and Clapham, D. (1991) Spiral Calcium Wave-Propagation and Annihilation in Xenopus-Laevis Oocytes. Science, 252, 123-126.
[134] Lipp, P. and Niggli, E. (1993) Microscopic Spiral Waves Reveal Positive Feedback in Subcellular Calcium Signaling. Biophysical Journal, 65, 2272-2276.
[135] Marchant, J. and Parker, I. (2001) Role of Elementary Ca2+ Puffs in Generating Repetitive Ca2+ Oscillations. EMBO Journal, 20, 65-76.
[136] Weiss, J.N. (2006) From Pulsus to Pulseless: The Saga of Cardiac Alternans. Circulation Research, 98, 1244-1253.
[137] Skardal, P.S., Karma, A. and Restrepo, J.G. (2012) Unidirectional Pinning and Hysteresis of Spatially Discordant Alternans in Cardiac Tissue. Physical Review Letters, 108, Article ID: 108103.
[138] Tran, D., Sato, D., Yochelis, A., Weiss, J., Garfinkel, A. and Qu, Z. (2009) Bifurcation and Chaos in a Model of Cardiac Early after Depolarizations. Physical Review Letters, 102, Article ID: 258103.
[139] Grosu, R., Smolka, S.A., Corradini, F., Wasilewska, A., Entcheva, E. and Bartocci, E. (2009) Learning and Detecting Emergent Behavior in Networks of Cardiac Myocytes. Communications of the ACM, 52, 97-105.
[140] Restrepo, J. and Karma, A. (2009) Line-Defect Patterns of Unstable Spiral Waves in Cardiac Tissue. Physical Review E, 79, Article ID: 030906.
[141] Hori, S., Yamaguchi, Y. and Shimizu, H. (1999) Self-Organization of the Heartbeat as Coordination among Ventricular Myocardial Cells through Mechano-Electrical Feedback. Biological Cybernetics, 80, 1-10.
[142] Asby, W.R. (1960) Design for a Brain. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 286 p.
[143] Block, H. (1962) The Perceptron: A Model for Brain Functioning. I. Reviews of Modern Physics, 34, 123-135.
[144] Rosenblatt, F. (1962) Principles of Neurodynamics: Perceptions and the Theory of Brain Mechanisms. Spartan Books, New York.
[145] Willshaw, D. and Malsburg, C. (1976) How Patterned Neural Connections Can Be Set up by Self-Organization. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B-Biological Sciences, 194, 431-445.
[146] Aihara, K., Numajiri, T., Matsumoto, G. and Kotani, M. (1986) Structures of Attractors in Periodically Forced Neural Oscillators. Physics Letters A, 116, 313-317.
[147] Canavier, C., Baxter, D., Clark, J. and Byrne, J. (1993) Nonlinear Dynamics in a Model Neuron Provide a Novel Mechanism for Transient Synaptic Inputs to Produce Long-Term Alterations of Postsynaptic Activity. Journal of Neurophysiology, 69, 2252-2257.
[148] Chay, T. (1984) Abnormal Discharges and Chaos in a Neuronal Model System. Biological Cybernetics, 50, 301-311.
[149] Ermentrout, B. (2010) Mathematical Foundations of Neuroscience. Springer, New York.
[150] Ibarz, B., Casado, J.M. and Sanjuan, M.A.F. (2011) Map-Based Models in Neuronal Dynamics. Physics Reports-Review Section of Physics Letters, 501, 1-74.
[151] Rothman, J.S., Cathala, L., Steuber, V. and Silver, R.A. (2009) Synaptic Depression Enables Neuronal Gain Control. Nature, 457, 1015-1018.
[152] Guckenheimer, J., Gueron, S. and Harriswarrick, R. (1993) Mapping the Dynamics of a Bursting Neuron. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 341, 345-359.
[153] Komendantov, A.O. and Kononenko, N.I. (1996) Deterministic Chaos in Mathematical Model of Pacemaker Activity in Bursting Neurons of Snail, Helix Pomatia. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 183, 219-230.
[154] Li, Y., Schmid, G., Hanggi, P. and Schimansky-Geier, L. (2010) Spontaneous Spiking in an Autaptic Hodgkin-Huxley Setup. Physical Review E, 82, Article ID: 061907.
[155] Hirata, Y., Oku, M. and Aihara, K. (2012) Chaos in Neurons and Its Application: Perspective of Chaos Engineering. Chaos, 22, Article ID: 047511.
[156] Yuste, R. and Denk, W. (1995) Dendritic Spines as Basic Functional Units of Neuronal Integration. Nature, 375, 682-684.
[157] Legenstein, R. and Maass, W. (2011) Branch-Specific Plasticity Enables Self-Organization of Nonlinear Computation in Single Neurons. Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 10787-10802.
[158] Ahmed, W.W., Williams, B.J., Silver, A.M. and Saif, T.A. (2013) Measuring Nonequilibrium Vesicle Dynamics in Neurons under Tension. Lab on a Chip, 13, 570-578.
[159] Hebb, D.O. (1949) The Organization of Behavior. A Neuropsychological Theory. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
[160] Fuhrmann, G., Segev, I., Markram, H. and Tsodyks, M. (2002) Coding of Temporal Information by Activity-Dependent Synapses. Journal of Neurophysiology, 87, 140-148.
[161] Hennig, M.H. (2013) Theoretical Models of Synaptic Short Term Plasticity. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 7, Article Number: 45.
[162] O’Donnell, C., Nolan, M.F. and van Rossum, M.C.W. (2011) Dendritic Spine Dynamics Regulate the Long-Term Stability of Synaptic Plasticity. Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 16142-16156.
[163] Saneyoshi, T., Fortin, D.A. and Soderling, T.R. (2010) Regulation of Spine and Synapse Formation by Activity-Dependent Intracellular Signaling Pathways. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 20, 108-115.
[164] Abbott, L.F. and Nelson, S.B. (2000) Synaptic Plasticity: Taming the Beast. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 1178-1183.
[165] Colon-Ramos, D.A. (2009) Synapse Formation in Developing Neural Circuits. In: Hobert, O., Ed., Development of Neural Circuitry, Elsvevier Academic Press Inc., San Diego, 53-79.
[166] Bi, G. and Poo, M. (1998) Synaptic Modifications in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons: Dependence on Spike Timing, Synaptic Strength and Postsynaptic Cell Type. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 10464-10472.
[167] Caporale, N. and Dan, Y. (2008) Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity: A Hebbian Learning Rule. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 31, 25-46.
[168] Clopath, C., Buesing, L., Vasilaki, E. and Gerstner, W. (2010) Connectivity Reflects Coding: A Model of Voltage-Based STDP with Homeostasis. Nature Neuroscience, 13, 344-352.
[169] Cox, K.J.A. and Adams, P.R. (2009) Hebbian Crosstalk Prevents Nonlinear Unsupervised Learning. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 3, 11.
[170] Elliott, T. (2012) Cross-Talk Induces Bifurcations in Nonlinear Models of Synaptic Plasticity. Neural Computation, 24, 455-522.
[171] Popovych, O.V., Yanchuk, S. and Tass, P.A. (2013) Self-Organized Noise Resistance of Oscillatory Neural Networks with Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity. Scientific Reports, 3, Article Number: 2926.
[172] Golding, N., Staff, N. and Spruston, N. (2002) Dendritic Spikes as a Mechanism for Cooperative Long-Term Potentiation. Nature, 418, 326-331.
[173] Harnett, M.T., Makara, J.K., Spruston, N., Kath, W.L. and Magee, J.C. (2012) Synaptic Amplification by Dendritic Spines Enhances Input Cooperativity. Nature, 491, 599-602.
[174] Sjostrom, P.J. and Hausser, M. (2006) A Cooperative Switch Determines the Sign of Synaptic Plasticity in Distal Dendrites of Neocortical Pyramidal Neurons. Neuron, 51, 227-238.
[175] Buzsáki, G. (2010) Neural Syntax: Cell Assemblies, Synapsembles and Readers. Neuron, 68, 362-385.
[176] Dupont, E., Hanganu, I.L., Kilb, W., Hirsch, S. and Luhmann, H.J. (2005) Rapid Developmental Switch in the Mechanisms Driving Early Cortical Columnar Networks. Nature, 439, 79-83.
[177] Hopfield, J. (1982) Neural Networks and Physical Systems with Emergent Collective Computational Abilities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 79, 2554-2558.
[178] Strogatz, S.H. (2001) Exploring Complex Networks. Nature, 410, 268-276.
[179] Van Vreeswijk, C. and Sompolinsky, H. (1996) Chaos in Neuronal Networks with Balanced Excitatory and Inhibitory Activity. Science, 274, 1724-1726.
[180] Huang, X. (2004) Spiral Waves in Disinhibited Mammalian Neocortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 9897-9902.
[181] Pinto, D.J. and Ermentrout, G.B. (2001) Spatially Structured Activity in Synaptically Coupled Neuronal Networks: I. Traveling Fronts and Pulses. SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 62, 206-225.
[182] Wilson, H.R. and Cowan, J.D. (1972) Excitatory and Inhibitory Interactions in Localized Populations of Model Neurons. Biophysical Journal, 12, 1-24.
[183] Lazar, A. (2009) SORN: A Self-Organizing Recurrent Neural Network. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 3, 23.
[184] Zheng, P., Dimitrakakis, C. and Triesch, J. (2013) Network Self-Organization Explains the Statistics and Dynamics of Synaptic Connection Strengths in Cortex. Plos Computational Biology, 9, e1002848.
[185] Fries, P. (2005) A Mechanism for Cognitive Dynamics: Neuronal Communication through Neuronal Coherence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 474-480.
[186] Akam, T., Oren, I., Mantoan, L., Ferenczi, E. and Kullmann, D.M. (2012) Oscillatory Dynamics in the Hippocampus Support Dentate Gyrus-CA3 Coupling. Nature Neuroscience, 15, 763-768.
[187] Bressloff, P.C. and Newby, J.M. (2013) Stochastic Models of Intracellular Transport. Reviews of Modern Physics, 85, 135-196.
[188] Junkin, M., Leung, S.L., Whitman, S., Gregorio, C.C. and Wong, P.K. (2011) Cellular Self-Organization by Autocatalytic Alignment Feedback. Journal of Cell Science, 124, 4213-4220.
[189] Qian, H. (2012) Cooperativity in Cellular Biochemical Processes: Noise-Enhanced Sensitivity, Fluctuating Enzyme, Bistability with Nonlinear Feedback and Other Mechanisms for Sigmoidal Responses. Annual Review of Biophysics, 41, 179-204.
[190] Tyson, J., Chen, K. and Novak, B. (2003) Sniffers, Buzzers, Toggles and Blinkers: Dynamics of Regulatory and Signaling Pathways in the Cell. Current Opinion in Cell Biology, 15, 221-231.
[191] Bray, D. (2009) Wetware: A Computer in Every Living Cell. Yale University Press, New Haven, London.
[192] Santos, S.D.M., Verveer, P.J. and Bastiaens, P.I.H. (2007) Growth Factor-Induced MAPK Network Topology Shapes Erk Response Determining PC-12 Cell Fate. Nature Cell Biology, 9, 324-330.
[193] Ivanov, P., Amaral, L., Goldberger, A. and Stanley, H. (1998) Stochastic Feedback and the Regulation of Biological Rhythms. Europhysics Letters, 43, 363-368.
[194] Shiogai, Y., Stefanovska, A. and McClintock, P.V.E. (2010) Nonlinear Dynamics of Cardiovascular Ageing. Physics Reports, 488, 51-110.
[195] Wagner, C. and Persson, P. (1998) Chaos in the Cardiovascular System: An Update. Cardiovascular Research, 40, 257-264.
[196] Moorman, J.R., Delos, J.B., Flower, A.A., Cao, H., Kovatchev, B.P., Richman, J.S., et al. (2011) Cardiovascular Oscillations at the Bedside: Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Sepsis Using Heart Rate Characteristics Monitoring. Physiological Measurement, 32, 1821-1832.
[197] Aubert, A.E., Vandeput, S., Beckers, F., Liu, J., Verheyden, B. and Van Huffel, S. (2009) Complexity of Cardiovascular Regulation in Small Animals. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 367, 1239-1250.
[198] Costa, M.D., Peng, C.-K. and Goldberger, A.L. (2008) Multiscale Analysis of Heart Rate Dynamics: Entropy and Time Irreversibility Measures. Cardiovascular Engineering, 8, 88-93.
[199] Perkiomaki, J., Makikallio, T. and Huikuri, H. (2005) Fractal and Complexity Measures of Heart Rate Variability. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, 27, 149-158.
[200] Kohl, P. and Sachs, F. (2001) Mechanoelectric Feedback in Cardiac Cells. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 359, 1173-1185.
[201] Garrett, D.D., Samanez-Larkin, G.R., MacDonald, S.W.S., Lindenberger, U., McIntosh, A.R. and Grady, C.L. (2013) Moment-to-Moment Brain Signal Variability: A Next Frontier in Human Brain Mapping? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37, 610-624.
[202] Guidolin, D., Albertin, G., Guescini, M., Fuxe, K. and Agnati, L.F. (2011) Central Nervous System and Computation. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 86, 265-285.
[203] Haken, H. (2007) Brain Dynamics: Synchronization and Activity Patterns in Pulse-Coupled Neural Nets with Delays and Noise. Springer, Berlin, New York.
[204] Schoner, G. and Kelso, J. (1988) Dynamic Pattern Generation in Behavioral and Neural Systems. Science, 239, 1513-1520.
[205] Watts, D. and Strogatz, S. (1998) Collective Dynamics of “Small-World” Networks. Nature, 393, 440-442.
[206] Park, H. and Friston, K. (2013) Structural and Functional Brain Networks: From Connections to Cognition. Science, 342, 1238411-1238411.
[207] Stam, C.J. and van Straaten, E.C.W. (2012) The Organization of Physiological Brain Networks. Clinical Neurophysiology, 123, 1067-1087.
[208] Rubinov, M., Sporns, O., van Leeuwen, C. and Breakspear, M. (2009) Symbiotic Relationship between Brain Structure and Dynamics. BMC Neuroscience, 10, 55.
[209] Tokuda, I.T., Han, C.E., Aihara, K., Kawato, M. and Schweighofer, N. (2010) The Role of Chaotic Resonance in Cerebellar Learning. Neural Networks, 23, 836-842.
[210] Frank, T.D., Michelbrink, M., Beckmann, H. and Schollhorn, W.I. (2007) A Quantitative Dynamical Systems Approach to Differential Learning: Self-Organization Principle and Order Parameter Equations. Biological Cybernetics, 98, 19-31.
[211] Obermayer, K., Blasdel, G. and Schulten, K. (1992) Statistical-Mechanical Analysis of Self-Organization and Pattern Formation during the Development of Visual Maps. Physical Review A, 45, 7568-7589.
[212] Kaschube, M., Schnabel, M., Lowel, S., Coppola, D.M., White, L.E. and Wolf, F. (2010) Universality in the Evolution of Orientation Columns in the Visual Cortex. Science, 330, 1113-1116.
[213] Dean, H.L., Hagan, M.A. and Pesaran, B. (2012) Only Coherent Spiking in Posterior Parietal Cortex Coordinates Looking and Reaching. Neuron, 73, 829-841.
[214] Hellman, L., Nakada, F., Curti, J., Weitzman, E., Kream, J., Roffwarg, H., et al. (1970) Cortisol Is Secreted Episodically by Normal Man. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 30, 411-422.
[215] Veldhuis, J., Keenan, D.M. and Pincus, S.M. (2008) Motivations and Methods for Analyzing Pulsatile Hormone Secretion. Endocrine Reviews, 29, 823-864.
[216] Smith, W. (1980) Hypothalamic Regulation of Pituitary Secretion of Luteinizing Hormone—II Feedback Control of Gonadotropin Secretion. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 42, 57-78.
[217] Greenhalgh, D. and Khan, Q.J.A. (2009) A Delay Differential Equation Mathematical Model for the Control of the Hormonal System of the Hypothalamus, the Pituitary and the Testis in Man. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications, 71, e925-e935.
[218] Prank, K., Harms, H., Dammig, M., Brabant, G., Mitschke, F. and Hesch, R. (1994) Is There Low-Dimensional Chaos in Pulsatile Secretion of Parathyroid-Hormone in Normal Human-Subjects. American Journal of Physiology, 266, E653-E658.
[219] Papavasiliou, S.S., Brue, T., Jaquet, P. and Castanas, E. (1995) Pattern of Prolactin Diurnal Secretion in Normal Humans: Evidence for Nonlinear Dynamics. Neuroendocrinology, 62, 444-453.
[220] Hamann, H., Schmickl, T. and Crailsheim, K. (2012) A Hormone-Based Controller for Evaluation-Minimal Evolution in Decentrally Controlled Systems. Artificial Life, 18, 165-198.
[221] Keenan, D.M., Wang, X., Pincus, S.M. and Veldhuis, J.D. (2012) Modeling the Nonlinear Time Dynamics of Multidimensional Hormonal Systems: Time Dynamics of Hormonal Systems. Journal of Time Series Analysis, 33, 779-796.
[222] Londergan, C. and Peacock-Lopez, E. (1998) Dynamic Model of Hormonal Systems Coupled by Negative Feedback. Biophysical Chemistry, 73, 85-107.
[223] Sriram, K., Rodriguez-Fernandez, M. and Doyle, F.J. (2012) Modeling Cortisol Dynamics in the Neuro-Endocrine Axis Distinguishes Normal, Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Humans. PLoS Computational Biology, 8, e1002379.
[224] Zhusubaliyev, Z.T., Churilov, A.N. and Medvedev, A. (2012) Bifurcation Phenomena in an Impulsive Model of Non-Basal Testosterone Regulation. Chaos, 22, Article ID: 013121.
[225] Shapiro, J.A. (2013) Rethinking the (Im) Possible in Evolution. Progress in Biophysics & Molecular Biology, 111, 92-96.
[226] Ginter, E., Simko, V. and Dolinska, S. (2009) Paradoxes in Medicine: An Access to New Knowledge? Bratislava Medical Journal-Bratislavske Lekarske Listy, 110, 112-115.
[227] Aslanidis, S., Pyrpasopoulou, A., Douma, S. and Triantafyllou, A. (2008) Tumor Necrosis Factor—A Antagonist—Induced Psoriasis: Yet Another Paradox in Medicine. Clinical Rheumatology, 27, 377-380.
[228] Gillie, O. (2012) The Scots’ Paradox: Can Sun Exposure, or Lack of it, Explain Major Paradoxes in Epidemiology? Anticancer Research, 32, 237-248.
[229] Smith, S., Hauben, M. and Aronson, J.K. (2012) Paradoxical and Bidirectional Drug Effects. Drug Safety, 35, 173-189.
[230] Baker, S.G., Cappuccio, A. and Potter, J.D. (2010) Research on Early-Stage Carcinogenesis: Are We Approaching Paradigm Instability? Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28, 3215-3218.
[231] Baker, S.G. and Kramer, B.S. (2007) Paradoxes in Carcinogenesis: New Opportunities for Research Directions. BMC Cancer, 7, 151.
[232] Hyland, G.J. (2009) Frohlich’s Coherent Excitations & the Cancer Problem—A Retrospecive Overview of His Guiding Philosophy1. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 28, 316-329.
[233] Ao, P., Galas, D., Hood, L. and Zhu, X. (2008) Cancer as Robust Intrinsic State of Endogenous Molecular-Cellular Network Shaped by Evolution. Medical Hypotheses, 70, 678-684.
[234] Plankar, M., Del Giudice, E., Tedeschi, A. and Jerman, I. (2012) The Role of Coherence in a Systems View of Cancer Development. Theoretical Biology Forum, 105, 15-46.
[235] Pokorny, J. (2009) Biophysical Cancer Transformation Pathway. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 28, 105-123.
[236] Deisboeck, T.S. and Couzin, I.D. (2009) Collective Behavior in Cancer Cell Populations. BioEssays, 31, 190-197.
[237] Dinicola, S., D’Anselmi, F., Pasqualato, A., Proietti, S., Lisi, E., Cucina, A., et al. (2011) A Systems Biology Approach to Cancer: Fractals, Attractors and Nonlinear Dynamics. OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology, 15, 93-104.
[238] Khain, E. and Sander, L. (2006) Dynamics and Pattern Formation in Invasive Tumor Growth. Physical Review Letters, 96, Article ID: 188103.
[239] Perfahl, H., Byrne, H.M., Chen, T., Estrella, V., Alarcón, T., Lapin, A., et al. (2011) Multiscale Modeling of Vascular Tumour Growth in 3D: The Roles of Domain Size and Boundary Conditions. PLoS ONE, 6, e14790.
[240] Jiao, Y. and Torquato, S. (2013) Evolution and Morphology of Microenvironment-Enhanced Malignancy of Three-Dimensional Invasive Solid Tumors. Physical Review E, 87, Article ID: 052707.
[241] Davies, P.C.W., Demetrius, L. and Tuszynski, J.A. (2011) Cancer as a Dynamical Phase Transition. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modeling, 8, 30.
[242] Luther, S., Fenton, F.H., Kornreich, B.G., Squires, A., Bittihn, P., Hornung, D., et al. (2011) Low-Energy Control of Electrical Turbulence in the Heart. Nature, 475, 235-239.
[243] Bogaert, C., Beckers, F., Ramaekers, D. and Aubert, A. (2001) Analysis of Heart Rate Variability with Correlation Dimension Method in a Normal Population and in Heart Transplant Patients. Autonomic Neuroscience-Basic & Clinical, 90, 142-147.
[244] Richman, J. and Moorman, J. (2000) Physiological Time-Series Analysis Using Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 278, H2039-H2049.
[245] Ivanov, P., Amaral, L., Goldberger, A., Havlin, S., Rosenblum, M., Struzik, Z., et al. (1999) Multifractality in Human Heartbeat Dynamics. Nature, 399, 461-465.
[246] Stam, C. (2005) Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis of EEG and MEG: Review of an Emerging Field. Clinical Neurophysiology, 116, 2266-2301.
[247] El Boustani, S. and Destexhe, A. (2010) Brain Dynamics at Multiple Scales: Can One Reconcile the Apparent Low-Dimensional Chaos of Macroscopic Variables with the Seemingly Stochastic Behavior of Single Neurons? International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 20, 1687-1702.
[248] Phothisonothai, M. and Nakagawa, M. (2007) Fractal-Based EEG Data Analysis of Body Parts Movement Imagery Tasks. Journal of Physiological Sciences, 57, 217-226.
[249] Stephan, K.E., Kasper, L., Harrison, L.M., Daunizeau, J., den Ouden, H.E.M., Breakspear, M., et al. (2008) Nonlinear Dynamic Causal Models for fMRI. NeuroImage, 42, 649-662.
[250] Bosl, W., Tierney, A., Tager-Flusberg, H. and Nelson, C. (2011) EEG Complexity as a Biomarker for Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk. BMC Medicine, 9, 18.
[251] Takahashi, T. (2013) Complexity of Spontaneous Brain Activity in Mental Disorders. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 45, 258-266.
[252] Lehnertz, K. (2008) Epilepsy and Nonlinear Dynamics. Journal of Biological Physics, 34, 253-266.
[253] Silva, C., Pimentel, I., Andrade, A., Foreid, J. and Ducla-Soares, E. (1999) Correlation Dimension Maps of EEG from Epileptic Absences. Brain Topography, 11, 201-209.
[254] Arendt, T. (2005) Alzheimer’s Disease as a Disorder of Dynamic Brain Self-Organization. Progress in Brain Research, 147, 355-378.
[255] Carlino, E., Sigaudo, M., Pollo, A., Benedetti, F., Mongini, T., Castagna, F., et al. (2012) Nonlinear Analysis of Electroencephalogram at Rest and during Cognitive Tasks in Patients with Schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 37, 259-266.
[256] Bewernitz, M. and Derendorf, H. (2012) Electroencephalogram-Based Pharmacodynamic Measures: A Review. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 50, 162-184.
[257] Fuqua, J.S. and Rogol, A.D. (2013) Neuroendocrine Alterations in the Exercising Human: Implications for Energy Homeostasis. Metabolism, 62, 911-921.
[258] Schwetz, V., Pieber, T. and Obermayer-Pietsch, B. (2012) Mechanisms in Endocrinology: The Endocrine Role of the Skeleton: Background and Clinical Evidence. European Journal of Endocrinology, 166, 959-967.
[259] Veldhuis, J., Sharma, A. and Roelfsema, F. (2013) Age-Dependent and Gender-Dependent Regulation of Hypothalamic-Adrenocorticotropic-Adrenal Axis. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, 42, 201-225.
[260] Costa-e-Sousa, R.H. and Hollenberg, A.N. (2012) Minireview: The Neural Regulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis. Endocrinology, 153, 4128-4135.
[261] Sato, T. and Clevers, H. (2013) Growing Self-Organizing Mini-Guts from a Single Intestinal Stem Cell: Mechanism and Applications. Science, 340, 1190-1194.
[262] Sage, A., Tintut, Y., Garfinkel, A. and Demer, L. (2009) Systems Biology of Vascular Calcification. Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine, 19, 118-123.
[263] Glazier, P.S. and Davids, K. (2009) Constraints on the Complete Optimization of Human Motion. Sports Medicine, 39, 15-28.
[264] Dokoumetzidis, A., Iliadis, A. and Macheras, P. (2001) Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos Theory: Concepts and Applications Relevant to Pharmacodynamics. Pharmaceutical Research, 18, 415-426.
[265] Noble, D. (2011) A Theory of Biological Relativity: No Privileged Level of Causation. Interface Focus, 2, 55-64.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.