Solid-State Fermentation for the Concomitant Production of δ-Endotoxin and Endospore from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki


Water stress and limited aeration imparted by solid-state fermentation (SSF) were reported as crucial factors for the enhancement of endospore production by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt); and thus, more δ-endotoxin could be produced concomitantly with reduced time. Therefore, Bt subsp. kurstaki (Btk) was employed in the present study to evaluate its efficiency for the concomitant production of endospores and δ-endotoxin in LB medium supplemented with various naturally available agricultural products, i.e., flours of soybean, Bengal gram or jack seed at various concentrations (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 80% or 100%, all w/v). After 12 h fermentation, the supernatant in it was centrifuged off aseptically to obtain solid substrate for subsequent SSF. Of them, soybean (30%) supplemented medium was the best for the enhanced production of endospore and δ-crystals. The maximum yield of endospores during solid-state fermentation was observed 48 h, i.e., compared to submerged fermentation in LB, it was 24 h less gestation period. In control sample, the endospores achieved the maximum length (1.10 ± 0.13 μm) and diameter (0.63 ± 0.07 μm) at 72 h; while in soybean supplemented medium, the maximum length (2.10 ± 0.16 μm) and diameter (1.63 ± 0.16 μm) were at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Upon staining, acridine orange specifically stained the endospores; malachite green-saffranin stained both δ-crystals and endospores; and coomassie brilliant blue specifically stained δ-endotoxin. Briefly, normal gestation period or harvest time for Btk is 72 h, which could be reduced to 48 h, if SSF is employed as demonstrated in this study.

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Jisha, V. and Benjamin, S. (2014) Solid-State Fermentation for the Concomitant Production of δ-Endotoxin and Endospore from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 5, 797-804. doi: 10.4236/abb.2014.510093.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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