Prevalence and Risk Factors of Adverse Drug Reactions Associated Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Treatments in Selected Treatment Centers in Addis Ababa Ethiopia

DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2014.23018   PDF   HTML   XML   5,046 Downloads   6,943 Views   Citations

Abstract

Introduction: The key to successful elimination of tuberculosis (TB) is treatment of cases with optimum chemotherapy. Irrational anti-TB drug use over time has led to drug-resistant TB. The treatment of MDR-TB with second line drugs is long, complex and costly, and has a considerable rate of adverse effects. The level of ADR reporting is low in Ethiopia due to different factors. This Study conducted in a selected treated area in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and helped the health care centers to understand the prevalence of ADR related MDR-TB and be aware of those adverse effects in order to detect them early and be prepared to take proper steps when they occur. Aim of the Study: To determine the prevalence and risk factor of adverse drug reactions associated treatments of Multidrug Resistant tuberculosis. Method: This was a cross sectional study, which was conducted between March 2012 and February 2013 at St. Peter TB specialized hospital and AHRI/ALERT. 73 MDR TB patients, who were on MDR TB treatments, enrolled to the study. Adverse Drug Reactions associated MDR TB treatments were assessed by patient history review and questionnaire. Chemistry laboratory was used to test renal function, thyroid function, liver enzyme and potassium level. Result: In 72 patients, at least two ADRs were found. The mean age of the study population (Mean ± SD) was 28 ± 8.8. In this study the most commonly found adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were: Anorexia 83.3%, Nausea and vomiting 82%, Gastritis 64%, Arteralgia 47%, Skin rash and itching 45%, Headache 29.2%, Depression 22.2% and Blurred vision 19.4%. Using binary logistic regression model older age (COR 8.71, 95% [CI] 1.06 - 71.9), alcoholism (COR 4.05, 95% [CI] 1.05 - 15.6), smoking (COR 0.24, 95% [CI] 0.06 - 0.87) and concomitant drug intake (COR 0.14, 95% [CI] 0.03 - 0.76) were independent predictors for ADRs. Conclusion: The prevalence of ADRs related MDR TB treatments is high. To minimize ADR occurrence, ADR predictors should be integrated into the clinical pathway. Monitoring of liver function, renal function, TSH and level of potassium during MDR TB treatment, helps to avoid complication caused by therapy and increase the adherence to the treatment.

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Bezu, H. , Seifu, D. , Yimer, G. and Mebrhatu, T. (2014) Prevalence and Risk Factors of Adverse Drug Reactions Associated Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Treatments in Selected Treatment Centers in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Journal of Tuberculosis Research, 2, 144-154. doi: 10.4236/jtr.2014.23018.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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