Incremental Diversity: A Framework for Rate-Adaptation/Energy-Conservation Enhancement in MIMO Systems


In recent years, MIMO technology has emerged as one of the technical breakthroughs in the field of wireless communications. Two famous MIMO techniques have become investigated thoroughly throughout the literature; Spatial Multiplexing, and Space Time Block Coding. On one hand, Spatial Multiplexing offers high data rates. On the other hand, Space Time Block Coding presents transmission fidelity. This imposes a fundamental tradeoff between capacity and reliability. Adaptive MIMO Switching schemes have been proposed to select the MIMO scheme that best fits the channel conditions. However, the switching schemes presented in the literature directly switch between the MIMO endpoints. In this paper, an adaptive MIMO system that incrementally switches from multiplexing towards diversity is proposed. The proposed scheme is referred to as incremental diversity and can be set to operate in two different modes; Rate-Adaptive, and Energy-Conservative Incremental Diversity. Results indicate that the proposed incremental diversity framework achieves transmission reliability offered by MIMO diversity, while maintaining a gradual increase in spectral efficiency (in the Rate-Adaptive mode) or a reduction in required number of received symbols (in the Energy-Conservative mode) with increase in the SNR.

Share and Cite:

Elshabrawy, T. and Nafie, S. (2014) Incremental Diversity: A Framework for Rate-Adaptation/Energy-Conservation Enhancement in MIMO Systems. International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, 7, 373-385. doi: 10.4236/ijcns.2014.79039.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Vucetic, B. and Yuan, J. (2003) Space-Time Coding, Wiley.
[2] Tse, D. and Viswanath, P. (2005) Fundamentals of Wireless Communications. Cambridge.
[3] Chae, C., Katz, M., Suh, C. and Jeong, H. (2004) Adaptive Spatial Modulation for MIMO-OFDM. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 1, 87-92.
[4] Lopez-Vicario, J. and Anton-Haro, C. (2005) Adaptive Switching between Spatial Diversity and Multiplexing: A Cross-Layer Approach. IST Mobile Communications Summit, June 2005.
[5] Lozano, A. and Jindal, N. (2010) Transmit Diversity vs. Spatial Multiplexing in Modern MIMO Systems. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 9, 186-197.
[6] Heath, R.W. and Paulraj, A.J. (2005) Switching between Diversity and Multiplexing in MIMO Systems. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 53, 962-968.
[7] Choi, Y. and Alamouti, S.M. (2008) A Pragmatic PHY Abstraction Technique for Link Adaptation and MIMO Switching. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 26, 960-971.
[8] Wu, Y. and Tellambura, C. (2004) Low-Complexity Optimal Detection for Hybrid Space-Time Block Coding and Spatial Multiplexing. Vehicular Technology Conference, Montreal, 25-28 September 2006, 1-4.
[9] Elshabrawy, T. and Elsharkawy, M. (2011) Computationally Efficient Implementation for Incremental Redundancy within Wireless Networks. IEEE International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Toronto, 11-14 September 2011, 1051-1055.
[10] El-Shabrawy, T. and Wahed, S.A. (2009) Adaptive Modulation and Coding for Broadcast DVB-H Systems. International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Tokyo, 13-16 September 2009, 1292-1296.
[11] Moreira, J.C. and Farrell, P.G. (2006) Essentials of Error-Control Coding. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chippenham, 65- 76.
[12] Elshabrawy, T. and Nafae, S. (2013) An Adaptive MIMO System Using Incremental Diversity. Vehicular Technology Conference 2013, Las Vagas, 2-5 September 2013, 1-5.
[13] Larsson, E.G. and Stoica, P. (2005) Space-Time Block Coding for Wireless Communications, Cambridge.
[14] Goldsmith, A. Multiple Antennas and Space-Time Communications in Wireless Communications, Cambridge, 321-347.
[15] Hwang, K.J., Lee, S. and Chang, K. (2003) Adaptive Rate MIMO System Using Space-Time Block Mapping. The 57th IEEE Semiannual Vehicular Technology Conference, 1, 774-778.
[16] Sheikh, M.U., Jagusz, R. and Lempiainen, J. (2011) Performance Evaluation of Adaptive MIMO Switching in Long Term Evolution. International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference, Istanbul, 4-8 July 2011, 866-870.
[17] Chan, A.M. and Lee, I. (2002) A New Reduced-Complexity Sphere Decoder for Multiple Antenna Systems. IEEE International Conference on Communications, 1, 460-464.
[18] Minka, T. (2011) Microsoft Corporation.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.