Nutrient Intakes from Food of Lactating Women Do Not Meet Many Dietary Recommendations Important for Infant Development and Maternal Health

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2584KB) PP. 1644-1651
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.517177    3,703 Downloads   5,270 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Literature describing dietary intakes of lactating mothers in the United States (US) is limited and none of the existing studies attempts to identify whether dietary shortcomings of lactating mothers are distinct from those of women of childbearing age in the US. The first objective of this observational study was to comprehensively analyze the dietary intakes of lactating mothers in the US to determine whether nutrient intakes from food were sufficient to meet recommendations. The second objective was to compare these intakes to those of women of childbearing age in the US. Weekly 3-day food records were collected from subjects for six weeks in 2012-2013. Subject mean daily intakes of food groups, macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and specific fats including omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were determined and compared to daily recommendations. Intakes were compared to US women using the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Fruit, vegetable, and dairy intakes of mothers were ≤50% of recommendations, resulting in 12 of 26 analyzed vitamins or minerals including potassium, iodine, chromium, choline, and vitamins A, D, and E having mean daily intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement. Vitamin D intake of subjects was 18% lower than US women, while most other nutrients showed intakes within 10% of each other between populations. Lactating women are not meeting the increased dietary needs associated with breastfeeding, supporting education initiatives and interventions specifically tailored to breastfeeding populations to increase intakes of vitamin D, vitamin E, iodine, biotin, carotenoids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids from food.

Cite this paper

Pratt, N. , Durham, H. and Sherry, C. (2014) Nutrient Intakes from Food of Lactating Women Do Not Meet Many Dietary Recommendations Important for Infant Development and Maternal Health. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 1644-1651. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.517177.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] National Research Council (1991) Nutrition during Lactation. The National Academies Press, Washington DC.
[2] Johnston, M.L.S., Noble, L., Szucs, K. and Viehmann, L. (2012) Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. Pediatrics, 129, e827-e841.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-3552
[3] US Congress (1990) National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act of 1990. US G.P.O., Washington DC.
[4] US Department of Agriculture ARS (2012) Total Nutrient Intakes: Percent Reporting and Mean Amounts of Selected Vitamins and Minerals from Food, by Family Income (as % of Federal Poverty Threshold) and Age. US Department of Agriculture ARS, Beltsville.
[5] Bougma, K., Aboud, F.E., Harding, K.B. and Marquis, G.S. (2013) Iodine and Mental Development of Children 5 Years Old and Under: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients, 5, 1384-1416.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu5041384
[6] Antonakou, A., Chiou, A., Andrikopoulos, N.K., Bakoula, C. and Matalas, A.L. (2011) Breast Milk Tocopherol Con tent during the First Six Months in Exclusively Breastfeeding Greek Women. European Journal of Nutrition, 50, 195-202.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-010-0129-4
[7] Sherwood, K.L., Houghton, L.A., Tarasuk, V. and O’Connor, D.L. (2006) One-Third of Pregnant and Lactating Women May Not Be Meeting Their Folate Requirements from Diet Alone Based on Mandated Levels of Folic Acid Fortification. Journal of Nutrition, 136, 2820-2826.
[8] Lovelady, C.A., Stephenson, K.G., Kuppler, K.M. and Williams, J.P. (2006) The Effects of Dieting on Food and Nutrient Intake of Lactating Women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106, 908-912.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2006.03.007
[9] Durham, H.A., Lovelady, C.A., Brouwer, R.J., Krause, K.M. and Ostbye, T. (2011) Comparison of Dietary Intake of Overweight Postpartum Mothers Practicing Breastfeeding or Formula Feeding. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 111, 67-74.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2010.10.001
[10] Mackey, A.D., Picciano, M.F., Mitchell, D.C. and Smiciklas-Wright, H. (1998) Self-Selected Diets of Lactating Women Often Fail to Meet Dietary Recommendations. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 98, 297-302.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(98)00070-4
[11] Sherry, C.L., Oliver, J.S., Renzi, L.M. and Marriage, B.J. (2014) Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Impact Other Carotenoids. Journal of Nutrition, 144, 1256-1263.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.114.192914
[12] Pereira, M.A., Rifas-Shiman, S.L., Kleinman, K.P., Rich-Edwards, J.W., Peterson, K.E. and Gillman, M.W. (2007) Predictors of Change in Physical Activity during and after Pregnancy: Project Viva. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32, 312-319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2006.12.017
[13] Sebastian, R.S., Enns, C.W. and Goldman, J.D. (2011) MyPyramid Intakes and Snacking Patterns of US Adults: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008. Food Surveys Research Group, Agriculture USDo.
[14] National Research Council (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cho- lesterol, Protein and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). The National Academies Press, Washington DC.
[15] Kris-Etherton, P.M., Grieger, J.A. and Etherton, T.D. (2009) Dietary Reference Intakes for DHA and EPA. Prostaglan dins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 81, 99-104.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2009.05.011
[16] Koletzko, B., Lien, E., Agostoni, C., Bohles, H., Campoy, C., Cetin, I., et al. (2008) The Roles of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Pregnancy, Lactation and Infancy: Review of Current Knowledge and Consensus Recommen dations. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 36, 5-14.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/JPM.2008.001
[17] Simopoulos, A.P., Leaf, A. and Salem Jr., N. (1999) Workshop on the Essentiality of and Recommended Dietary Intakes for Omega-6 and Omega-3 FATTY Acids. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 8, 300-301.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-6047.1999.00123.x
[18] Carlson, S.J., Fallon, E.M., Kalish, B.T., Gura, K.M. and Puder, M. (2013) The Role of the Omega-3 Fatty Acid DHA in the Human Life Cycle. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 37, 15-22.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0148607112467821
[19] National Research Council (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. The National Academies Press, Washington DC.
[20] Murphy, M.M., Barraj, L.M., Herman, D., Bi, X., Cheatham, R. and Randolph, R.K. (2012) Phytonutrient Intake by Adults in the United States in Relation to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 112, 222-229.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2011.08.044
[21] Kruger, C.L., Murphy, M., DeFreitas, Z., Pfannkuch, F. and Heimbach, J. (2002) An Innovative Approach to the Determination of Safety for a Dietary Ingredient Derived from a New Source: Case Study Using a Crystalline Lutein Pro duct. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 40, 1535-1549.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00131-X
[22] Clinton, S.K. (1998) Lycopene: Chemistry, Biology, and Implications for Human Health and Disease. Nutrition Reviews, 56, 35-51.
[23] Zimmer, J.P. and Hammond Jr., B.R. (2007) Possible Influences of Lutein and Zeaxanthin on the Developing Retina. Clinical Ophthalmology, 1, 25-35.
[24] McGuire, S., US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services (2011) Dietary Guide- lines for Americans, 2010. Advances in Nutrition, 2, 293-294.
[25] Caldwell, K.L., Pan, Y., Mortensen, M.E., Makhmudov, A., Merrill, L. and Moye, J. (2013) Iodine Status in Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study and in US Women (15 - 44 Years), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010. Thyroid, 23, 927-937.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2013.0012
[26] Zimmermann, M.B. (2007) The Adverse Effects of Mild-to-Moderate Iodine Deficiency during Pregnancy and Childhood: A Review. Thyroid, 17, 829-835.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2007.0108
[27] Vieth, R., Bischoff-Ferrari, H., Boucher, B.J., Dawson-Hughes, B., Garland, C.F., Heaney, R.P., et al. (2007) The Urgent Need to Recommend an Intake of Vitamin D That Is Effective. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85, 649- 650.
[28] Picciano, M.F. and McGuire, M.K. (2009) Use of Dietary Supplements by Pregnant and Lactating Women in North America. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89, 663S-667S.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3945%2Fajcn.2008.26811B

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.