ef; // var args = "PaperID=" + item + "&RefererUrl=" + refererrurl + "&DownloadUrl="+downloadurl; // url = url + "?" + args + "&rand=" + RndNum(4); // //// window.setTimeout("show('" + url + "')", 500); // } // function pdfdownloadjudge() { // $("a").each(function(index) { // var rel = $(this).attr("rel"); // if (rel == "true") { // $(this).removeAttr("onclick"); // $(this).attr("href","#"); // //$(this).bind('click', function() { SetNumTwo(49312)}); // var url = "../userInformation/PDFLogin.aspx"; // var refererrurl = document.referrer; // var downloadurl = window.location.href; // var args = "PaperID=" + 49312 + "&RefererUrl=" + refererrurl + "&DownloadUrl=" + downloadurl; // url = url + "?" + args + "&rand=" + RndNum(4); // // $(this).bind('click', function() { ShowTwo(url)}); // } // }); // } // //获取下载pdf注册的cookie // function getcookie() { // var cookieName = "pdfddcookie"; // var cookieValue = null; //返回cookie的value值 // if (document.cookie != null && document.cookie != '') { // var cookies = document.cookie.split(';'); //将获得的所有cookie切割成数组 // for (var i = 0; i < cookies.length; i++) { // var cookie = cookies[i]; //得到某下标的cookies数组 // if (cookie.substring(0, cookieName.length + 2).trim() == cookieName.trim() + "=") {//如果存在该cookie的话就将cookie的值拿出来 // cookieValue = cookie.substring(cookieName.length + 2, cookie.length); // break // } // } // } // if (cookieValue != "" && cookieValue != null) {//如果存在指定的cookie值 // return false; // } // else { // // return true; // } // } // function ShowTwo(webUrl){ // alert("22"); // $.funkyUI({url:webUrl,css:{width:"600",height:"500"}}); // } //window.onload = pdfdownloadjudge;
AE> Vol.2 No.4, October 2014
Share This Article:
Cite This Paper >>

Genetics and Characteristics of a Pigmentation Defective Laboratory Strain of the Lady Beetle, Coleomegilla maculata

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:2752KB) PP. 161-166
DOI: 10.4236/ae.2014.24024    2,706 Downloads   3,288 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment
Margaret Louise Allen, Joseph Grey Ballenger


US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Biological Control of Pests Research Unit, Stoneville, MS, USA.


Beetles in the family Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, lady beetles, or ladybirds, are easily identifiable and popular beneficial insects. Current research aims to support conservation efforts of beneficial insects in agroecosystems by exploring genetic processes related to nutrition. As a part of this research, colonies of Coleomegilla maculata have been maintained in culture and inbred over many generations since 2009. One result of this inbreeding has been the discovery of novel morphological phenotypes unique to laboratory strains or present in wild populations at such low levels that they have not yet been described. One such phenotype is described here. The strain described here, ye (yellow elytra and eyes) was characterized with classical Mendelian breeding and digital image analysis. This phenotype differs from wild populations by possessing yellow pigment in the elytra and pale grey to white eyes. In contrast, wild populations of C. maculata possess pink or red pigmented elytra with black spots, and black eyes. C. maculata is not known to exhibit polymorphism in the field. Inheritance is autosomal and recessive. This species was not previously known to exhibit the dramatic variation of color described here. The strain is stable in the homozygous recessive form, and retains laboratory rearing characteristics similar to the wild type laboratory strain.


Coccinellidae, Yellow, Autosomal, Recessive, Elytra, Eye Color, Inbreeding, Heritable Trait, Pigmentation, Mutant Phenotype, Cuticle

Cite this paper

Allen, M. and Ballenger, J. (2014) Genetics and Characteristics of a Pigmentation Defective Laboratory Strain of the Lady Beetle, Coleomegilla maculata. Advances in Entomology, 2, 161-166. doi: 10.4236/ae.2014.24024.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Evans, E.W. (2009) Lady Beetles as Predators of Insects Other than Hemiptera. Biological Control, 51, 255-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.05.011
[2] Byers, J.A. (2006) Analysis of Insect and Plant Colors in Digital Images Using Java Software on the Internet. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 99, 865-874.
[3] Zar, J.H. (1977) Biostatistical Analysis. 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River.
[4] Britton, G., Lockley, W.J.S., Harriman, G.A. and Goodwin, T.W. (1977) Pigmentation of the Ladybird Beetle Coccinella septempunctata by Carotenoids Not of Plant Origin. Nature, 266, 49-50.
[5] Cromartie, R. (1959) Insect Pigments. Annual Review of Entomology, 4, 59-76.
[6] Obrycki, J.J. and Kring, T.J. (1998) Predaceous Coccinellidae in Biological Control. Annual Reviews of Entomology, 43, 295-321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.43.1.295
[7] Arakane, Y., Dittmer, N.T., Tomoyasu, Y., Kramer, K.J., Muthukrishnan, S., Beeman, R.W. and Kanost, M.R. (2010) Identification, mRNA Expression and Functional Analysis of Several Yellow Family Genes in Tribolium castaneum. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 40, 259-266.
[8] Sloggett, J., Magro, A., Verheggen, F., Hemptinne, J.-L., Hutchison, W. and Riddick, E. (2011) The Chemical Ecology of Harmonia axyridis. BioControl, 56, 643-661.
[9] Bezzerides, A.L., McGraw, K.J., Parker, R.S. and Husseini, J. (2007) Elytra Color as a Signal of Chemical Defense in the Asian Ladybird Beetle Harmonia axyridis. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 61, 1401-1408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-007-0371-9
[10] Blount, J.D., Rowland, H.M., Drijfhout, F.P., Endler, J.A., Inger, R., Sloggett, J.J., Hurst, G.D.D., Hodgson, D.J. and Speed, M.P. (2012) How the Ladybird Got Its Spots: Effects of Resource Limitation on the Honesty of Aposematic Signals. Functional Ecology, 26, 334-342.
[11] Hodek, I. and Honek, A. (1996) Ecology of Coccinellidae. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-1349-8
[12] Monteiro, A. (2012) Gene Regulatory Networks Reused to Build Novel Traits: Co-Option of an Eye-Related Gene Regulatory Network in Eye-Like Organs and Red Wing Patches on Insect Wings Is Suggested by Optix Expression. BioEssays, 34, 181-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201100160

comments powered by Disqus
AE Subscription
E-Mail Alert
AE Most popular papers
Publication Ethics & OA Statement
AE News
Frequently Asked Questions
Recommend to Peers
Recommend to Library
Contact Us

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.