Preparation and Microwave Absorbing Characteristics of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Chiral-Polyaniline Composites


The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/chiral-polyaniline composite was synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization. Morphology, structure as well as thermal stability of the hybrid composites were characterized by using various techniques. Moreover, the complex permeability, permittivity, and microwave absorbing characteristics of the MWCNTs/chiral-polyaniline composites have been studied. Compared with those of the polyaniline (PANI) and MWCNTs, the real part () and imaginary part () of the complex permittivity as well as dielectric dissipation factor of the MWCNTs/chiral-PANI composites were much greater, while the real part () and imaginary part () of the complex permeability and the magnetic dissipation factor were smaller. The results indicate that the microwave absorption of MWCNTs/chiral-PANI composites was mainly attributed to the dielectric loss rather than magnetic loss.

Share and Cite:

Zhang, J. , Shi, C. , Ji, T. , Wu, G. and Kou, K. (2014) Preparation and Microwave Absorbing Characteristics of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Chiral-Polyaniline Composites. Open Journal of Polymer Chemistry, 4, 62-72. doi: 10.4236/ojpchem.2014.43008.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Park, K.Y., Lee, S.E., Kim, C.G. and Han, J.H. (2006) Fabrication and Electromagnetic Characteristics of Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Sandwich Structures. Composites Science and Technology, 66, 576-584.
[2] Che, R.C., Peng, L.M., Duan, X.F., Chen, Q. and Liang, X.L. (2004) Microwave Absorption Enhancement and Complex Permittivity and Permeability of Fe Encapsulated within Carbon Nanotubes. Advanced Materials, 16, 401-405.
[3] Yang, Y.L., Gupta, M.C., Dudley, K.L. and Lawrence, R.W. (2005) Novel Carbon Nanotube-Polystyrene foam Composites for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding. Nano Letters, 5, 2131-2134.
[4] Li, N., Huang, Y., Du, F., He, X.B., Lin. X., Gao, H.J., et al. (2006) Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Epoxy Composites. Nano Letters, 6, 1141-1145.
[5] Cao, M.S., Shi, X.L., Fang, X.Y., Jin, H.B., Hou, Z.L., Zhou, W., et al. (2007) Microwave Absorption Properties and Mechanism of Cagelike ZnO/SiO2 Nanocomposites. Applied Physics Letters, 91, Article ID: 203110.
[6] Huang, Y., Li, N., Ma, Y.F., Feng, D., Li, F.F., He, X.B., et al. (2007) The Influence of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Structure on The Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Efficiency of Its Epoxy Composites. Carbon, 45, 1614-1621.
[7] Shi, X.L., Cao, M.S., Yuan, J.Q., Zhao, L., Kang, Y.Q., Fang, X.Y. and Chen, Y.J. (2008) Nonlinear Resonant and High Dielectric loss Behavior of CdS/alpha-Fe2O3 Heterostructure Nanocomposites. Applied Physics Letters, 93, Article ID: 183118.
[8] Lakshmi, K., John, H., Mathew, K.T., Joseph, R. and George, K.E. (2009) Microwave Absorption, Reflection and EMI Shielding of PU-PANI Composite. Acta Materialia, 57, 371-375.
[9] Song, W.L., Cao, M.S., Hou, Z.L., Fang, X.Y., Shi, X.L. and Yuan, J. (2009) High Dielectric Loss and Its Monotonic Dependence of Conducting Dominated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes/Silica Nanocomposite on Temperature Ranging from 373 to 873 K in X-Band. Applied Physics Letters, 94, Article ID: 233110.
[10] Wang, Y. and Jing, X. (2005) Intrinsically Conducting Polymers for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding. Polymers for Advanced Technologies, 16, 344-351.
[11] Joo, J. and Lee, C.Y. (2000) High Frequency Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Response of Mixtures and Multilayer Films Based on Conducting Polymers. Journal of Applied Physics, 88, 513-518.
[12] Xiang, C.S., Pan, Y.B., Liu, X.J., Sun, X.W., Shi, X.M. and Guo, J.K. (2005) Microwave Attenuation of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube-Fused Silica Composites. Applied Physics Letters, 87, Article ID: 123103.
[13] Yang, Y.L., Gupta, M.C., Dudley, K.L. and Lawrence, R.W. (2005) Conductive Carbon Nanofiber-Polymer Foam Structures. Advanced Materials, 17, 1999-2003.
[14] Bryning, M.B., Islam, M.F., Kikkawa, J.M. and Yodh, A.G. (2005) Very Low Conductivity Threshold in Bulk Isotropic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Epoxy Composites. Advanced Materials, 17, 1186-1191.
[15] Chung, D.D.L. (2001) Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness of Carbon Materials. Carbon, 39, 279-285.
[16] Iijima, S. (1991) Helical Microtubules of Graphitic Carbon. Nature, 354, 56-58.
[17] Liu, Z.F., Bai, G., Huang, Y., Ma, Y.F., Du, F., Li, F.F., Guo, T.Y. and Chen, Y.S. (2007) Reflection and Absorption Contributions to The Electromagnetic Interference Shielding of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Polyurethane Composites. Carbon, 45, 821-827.
[18] Ajayan, P.M., Stephan, O., Colliex, C. and Trauth, D. (1994) Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays Formed by Butting A Polymer Resin-Nanotube Composite. Science, 265, 1212-1214.
[19] Treacy, M.M.J., Ebbesen, T.W. and Gibson, J.M. (1996) Exceptionally High Young’s Modulus Observed for Individual Carbon Nanotubes. Nature, 381, 678-680.
[20] Ebbesen, T.W., Lezec, H.J., Hiura, H., Benett, J.W., Ghaemi, H.F. and Thio, T. (1996) Electrical Conductivity of Individual Carbon Nanotubes. Nature, 382, 54-56.
[21] Lu, J.P. (1997) Elastic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanoropes. Physical Review Letters, 79, 1297-1300.
[22] Wong, E.W., Sheehan, P.E. and Lieber, C.M. (1997) Nanobeam Mechanics: Elasticity, Strength and Toughness of Nanorods and Nanotubes. Science, 277, 1971-1975.
[23] Gojny, F.H. and Schulte, K. (2004) Functionalisation Effect on The Thermomechanical Behaviour of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube/Epoxy-Composites. Composites Science and Technology, 64, 2303-2308.
[24] Schartel, B., Potschke, P., Knoll, U. and Abdel-Goad, M. (2005) Fire Behavior of Polyamide/Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites. European Polymer Journal, 41, 1061-1070.
[25] Kim, H.M., Kim, K., Lee, S.J., Joo, J., Yoon, H.S., Cho, S.J., Lyu, S.C. and Lee, C.J. (2004) Charge Transport Properties of Composites of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube with Metal Catalyst and Polymer: Application to Electromagnetic Interference Shielding. Current Applied Physics, 4, 577-580.
[26] Ma, C.C.M., Huang, Y.L., Kuan, H.C. and Chiu, Y.S. (2005) Preparation and Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Characteristics of Novel Carbon-Nanotube/Siloxane/Poly-(Urea Urethane) Nanocomposites. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, 43, 345-358.
[27] Wu, H.L., Ma, C.C.M., Yang, Y.T., Kuan, H.C., Yang, C.C. and Chiang, C.L. (2006) Morphology, Electrical Resistance, Electromagnetic Interference Shielding and Mechanical Properties of Functionalized MWNT and Poly(Urea Urethane) Nanocomposites. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, 44, 1096-1105.
[28] Liu, L., Barber, A.H., Nuriel, S. and Wagner, H.D. (2005) Mechanical Properties of Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon-Nanotube/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Nanocomposites. Advanced Functional Materials, 15, 975-980.
[29] MacDiarmid, A.G., Chiang, J.C., Richter, A.F. and Epstein, A.J. (1987) Polyaniline: A New Concept in Conducting Polymers. Synthetic Metals, 18, 285-290.
[30] Cao, Y., Smith, P. and Heeger, A.J. (1992) Counter-Ion Induced Processibility of Conducting Polyaniline and of Conducting Polyblends of Polyaniline in Bulk Polymers. Synthetic Metals, 48, 91-97.
[31] Cao, Y., Andreatta, A., Heeger, A.J. and Smith, P. (1989) Influence of Chemical Polymerization Conditions on the Properties of Polyaniline. Polymer, 30, 2305-2311.
[32] MacDiarmid, A.G. and Epstein, A.J. (1995) Secondary Doping in Polyaniline. Synthetic Metals, 69, 85-92.
[33] Ding, S.J., Zhang, C.L., Yang, M., Qu, X.Z., Lu, Y.F. and Yang, Z.Z. (2006) Template Synthesis of Composite Hollow Spheres Using Sulfonated Polystyrene Hollow Spheres. Polymer, 47, 8360-8366.
[34] Huang, J.X. and Kaner, R.B. (2004) A General Chemical Route to Polyaniline Nanofibers. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 126, 851-855.
[35] Varadan, V.V., Lakhtakia, A. and Varadan, V.K. (1988) Equivalent Dipole Moments of Helical Arrangements of Small, Isotropic, Point-Polarizable Scatters: Application to Chiral Polymer Design. Journal of Applied Physics, 63, 280-284.
[36] Peng, X.Y., Luan, F., Liu, X.X., Diamond, D. and Lau, K.T. (2009) pH-Controlled Morphological Structure of Polyaniline during Electrochemical Deposition. Electrochimica Acta, 54, 6172-6177.
[37] Xing, S.X., Zheng, H.W. and Zhao, G.K. (2008) Preparation of Polyaniline Nanofibers via a Novel Interfacial Polymerization Method. Synthetic Metals, 158, 59-63.
[38] Zhang, L.J. and Wan, M.X. (2002) Synthesis and Characterization of Self-Assembled Polyaniline Nanotubes Doped with D-10-Camphorsulfonic Acid. Nanotechnology, 13, 750-755.
[39] Dhand, C., Arya, S.K., Singh, S.P., Singh, B.P., Datta, M. and Malhotra, B.D. (2008) Preparation of Polyaniline/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Composite by Novel Electrophoretic Route. Carbon, 46, 1727-1735.
[40] Yan, X.B., Han, Z.J., Yang, Y. and Tay, B.K. (2007) Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube-Polyaniline Composites via Electrostatic Adsorption in Aqueous Colloids. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 111, 4125-4131.
[41] Feng, W., Bai, X.D., Lian, Y.Q., Liang, J., Wang, X.G. and Yoshino, K. (2003) Well-Aligned Polyaniline/CarbonNanotube Composite Films Grown by in-Situ Aniline Polymerization. Carbon, 41, 1551-1557.
[42] Karim, M.R., Lee, C.J., Park, Y.T. and Lee, M.S. (2005) SWNTs Coated by Conducting Polyaniline: Synthesis and Modified Properties. Synthetic Metals, 151, 131-135.
[43] Luzny, W. and Banka, E. (2000) Relations between the Structure and Electric Conductivity of Polyaniline Protonated with Camphorsulfonic Acid. Macromolecules, 33, 425-429.
[44] Moon, Y.B., Cao, Y., Smith, P. and Heeger, A.J. (1989) X-Ray Scattering from Crystalline Polyaniline. Polymer Communications, 30, 196-199.
[45] Maser, W.K., Benito, A.M., Callejas, M.A., Seeger, T., Martínez, M.T., Schreiber, J., Muszynski, J., Chauvet, O., Osváth, Z., Koós, A.A. and Biró, L.P. (2003) Synthesis and Characterization of New Polyaniline/Nanotube Composites. Materials Science and Engineering: C-Materials for Biological Applications, 23, 87-91.
[46] Liu, S.W., Yue, J. and Wehmschulte, R.J. (2002) Large Thick Flattened Carbon Nanotubes. Nano Letters, 2, 1439-1442.
[47] Zhao, D.L., Li, X. and Shen, Z.M. (2008) Microwave Absorbing Property and Complex Permittivity and Permeability of Epoxy Composites Containing Ni-Coated and Ag Filled Carbon Nanotubes. Composites Science and Technology, 68, 2902-2908.
[48] Kim, S.S., Jo, S.B., Gueon, K.I., Choi, K.K., Kim, J.M. and Chum, K.S. (1991) Complex Permeability and Permittivity and Microwave Absorption of Ferrite-Rubber Composite in X-Band Frequencies. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 27, 5462-5464.
[49] Singh, P., Babbar, V.K., Razdan, A., Puri, R.K. and Goel, T.C. (2000) Complex Permittivity, Permeability, and X-Band Microwave Absorption of CaCoTi Ferrite Composites. Journal of Applied Physics, 87, 4362-4366.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.