Determination of the Crust and Upper-Mantle Structure in Anatolia by Surface Wave Data


In this study, the crust and upper mantle structure of Anatolia have been investigated by measuring the group velocity dispersion data of discriminated seismic surface waves. In the scope of the study, it has selected the profiles between six stations located in western Anatolia of Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory Earthquake Research Institute, national network of Turkey, and records of an earthquake (having about 10° epicentral distance) occurred in the eastern of Anatolia have been used. Firstly, surface wave discrimination filter based on the polarization properties has been applied tothree-component recordsand emphasized to surface waves. Then the group velocities have been calculated by multiple filter technique. A five-layered crustal model having total thickness of 38 - 40 km and Pn-wave velocity of 8.00 km/sec in the upper-mantle has been determined through inversion of surface wave group velocity dispersion data in the period range of 10 sec to 60 sec.

Share and Cite:

Sayil, N. (2014) Determination of the Crust and Upper-Mantle Structure in Anatolia by Surface Wave Data. Natural Science, 6, 968-977. doi: 10.4236/ns.2014.612089.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Gal’perin, E.I. and Frolova, A.V. (1960) Azimuth-Phase Correlation for Elliptically Polarized Waves. Izvestiya Soviet Academy of Sciences, Geophysics Series, 2, 195-208. (in Russian)
[2] Simons, R.S. (1968) A Surface Wave Particle Motion Discrimination Process. Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, 58, 629-637.
[3] Shimsoni, M. and Smith, S.W. (1964) Seismic Signal Enhancement Three-Component Detectors. Geophysics, 24, 664-671.
[4] Osmansahin, I., Ozer, M.F. and Sayil, N. (1994) Surface Wave Discrimination Filter Based on Polarization Properties. Geophysics, 8, 99-104.
[5] Du, Z., Foulger, G.R. and Weijian, M. (2000) Noise Reduction for Broad-Band Three-Component Seismograms Using Data-Adaptive Polarization Filters. Geophysical Journal International, 141, 820-828.
[6] Pinnegar, C.R. (2006) Polarization Analysis and Polarization Filtering of Three-Component Signals with the Time-Frequency Transform. Geophysical Journal International, 165, 596-606.
[7] Amoroso, O., Maercklin, N. and Zollo, A. (2012) S-Wave Identification by Polarization Filtering and Waveform Coherence Analysis. Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, 102, 854-861.
[8] Kutlu, Y.A. and Sayil, N. (2013) A Modified Surface Wave Particle Motion Discrimination Process. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 8, 395-405.
[9] Ewing, M., Jardetzky, W. and Pres, F. (1957) Elastic Waves in Layered Media. Mc Graw-Hill, New York.
[10] Pilant, W.L. (1979) Elastic Waves in the Earth, Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics. Elsevier, Holland.
[11] Panza, G.F., Schwab, F. and Knopoff, L. (1973) Multimode Surface Waves for Selected Focal Mechanism I. Dip-Slip Sources on a Vertical Fault Plane. Geophysical Journal International, 34, 265-278.
[12] Panza, G.F., Schwab, F. and Knopoff, L. (1975) Multimode Surface Waves for Selected Focal Mechanism, III. Strike-Slip Sources on a Vertical Fault Plane. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 42, 945-955.
[13] Romanowicz, B.A. (1980) A Study of Large-Scale Lateral Variations of P Velocity in the Upper Mantle beneath Western Europe. Geophysical Journal International, 63, 217-232.
[14] Levshin, A.L., Ritzwoller, M.H. and Ratnikova, L.I. (1994) The Nature and Cause of Polarization Anomalies of Surface Waves Crossing Northern and Central Eurasia. Geophysical Journal International, 117, 577-590.
[15] Spakman, W., Van der Lee, S. and Van der Hilst, R.D. (1993) Travel-Time Tomography of the European-Mediterranean Mantle down to 1400 km. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 79, 3-74.
[16] Marquering, H. and Snieder, R. (1996) Shear-Wave Velocity Structure Beneath Europe, the Northeastern Atlantic and Western Asia from Waveform Inversions Including Surface-Wave Mode Coupling. Geophysical Journal International, 127, 283-304.
[17] Ritzwoller, M.H. and Levshin, A.L. (1998) Eurasian Surface Wave Tomography: Group Velocities. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 103, 4839-4878.
[18] Marone, F., Van der Mejide, M., Van der Lee, S. and Giardini, D. (2003) Joint Inversion of Local, Regional and Teleseismic Data for Crustal Thickness in the Eurasia-Africa Plate Boundary. Geophysical Journal International, 154, 499-514.
[19] Al-Lazki, A.I., Sandvol, E., Seber, D., Barazangi, M., Turkelli, N. and Mohamad, R. (2004) Pn Tomographic Imaging of Mantle Lid Velocity and Anisotropy at the Junction of the Arabian, Eurasian, and African Plates. Geophysical Journal International, 158, 1024-1040.
[20] Boschi, L., Ekstrom, G. and Kustowski, B. (2004) Multiple Resolution Surface Wave Tomography: The Mediterranean Basin. Geophysical Journal International, 157, 293-304.
[21] Pasyanos, M.E. (2005) A Variable Resolution Surface Wave Dispersion Study of Eurasia, North Africa, and Surrounding Regions. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 110, 301.
[22] Erduran, M., Endrun, B. and Meier, T. (2008) Continental vs. Oceanic Lithosphere beneath the Eastern Mediterranean Sea—Implications from Rayleigh Wave Dispersion Measurements. Tectonophysics, 457, 42-52.
[23] Schivardi, R. and Morelli, A. (2011) EP Mantle: A 3-D Transversely Isotropic Model of the Upper Mantle under the European Plate. Geophysical Journal International, 185, 469-484.
[24] Bakirci, T., Yoshizawa, K. and Özer, M.F. (2012) Three-Dimensional S-Wave Structure of the Upper Mantle beneath Turkey from Surface Wave Tomography. Geophysical Journal International, 190, 1058-1076.
[25] Salaün, G., Pedersen, H., Paul, A., Farra, V., Karabulut, H., Hatzfeld, D., Papazachos C., Childs, D.M., Pequegnat, C. and the SIMBAAD Team (2012) High-Resolution Surface Wave Tomography of the Aegean-Anatolia Region: Constraints on Upper-Mantle Structure. Geophysical Journal International, 190, 406-420.
[26] Artemieva, I.M. and Thybo, H. (2013) EUNAseis: A Seismic Model for Moho and Crustal Structure in Europe, Greenland, and the North Atlantic Region. Tectonophysics, 609, 97-153.
[27] Ozer, M.F. (1989) The Crust Structure Modeling with Converted Phases. Ph.D. Thesis, Karadeniz Technial University, Trabzon.
[28] Sayil, N. and Osmansahin, I. (2000) Investigation of Crust and Upper-Mantle Structure at the Black Sea with Group-Velocity Data. Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, 90, 870-875.
[29] Koulakov, I., Tychkov, S., Bushenkova, N. and Vasilevsky, A. (2002) Structure and Dynamics of the Upper Mantle beneath the Alpine-Himalayan Orogenic Belt, from Teleseismic Tomography. Tectonophysics, 358, 77-96.
[30] Piromallo, C. and Morelli, A. (2003) P Wave Tomography of the Mantle under the Alpine-Mediterranean Area. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, Published Online.
[31] Biryol, C.B., Beck, S.L., Zandt, G. and Özacar, A.A. (2011) Segmented African Lithosphere beneath the Anatolian Region Inferred from Teleseismic P-Wave Tomography. Geophysical Journal International, 184, 1037-1057.
[32] Osmansahin, I. (1989) Determination of Crust and Upper-Mantle Structure in Anatolia and Its Neighborhood from Inter-Station Response Functions of Surface Waves. Ph.D. Thesis, Istanbul University, Istanbul.
[33] Maggi, A. and Priestley, K. (2005) Surface Waveform Tomography of Turkish-Iranian Plateau. Geophysical Journal International, 160, 1068-1080.
[34] Hearn, T. and Ni, J. (1994) Pn Velocities beneath Continental Collision Zones: The Turkish-Iranian Plateau. Geophysical Journal International, 117, 273-283.
[35] Gök, R., Pasyanos, M.E. and Zor, E. (2007) Lithospheric Structure of Continent-Continent Collision Zone: Eastern Turkey. Geophysical Journal International, 169, 1029-1088.
[36] Ezen, U. (1983) Structure of the Earth Crust and Love Waves Dispersion in the North and East Anatolia. Bulletin of the Earthquake Research Institute, 43, 42-62.
[37] Canitez, N. and Toksoz, M.N. (1980) Crustal Structure beneath Turkey. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 61, 290.
[38] Mindevalli, O.Y. (1988) Crust and Upper Mantle Structure of Turkey and the Indian Sub-Continent Surface Wave Studies. Ph.D. Thesis, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis.
[39] Osmansahin, I. and Sayil, N. (1996) Pn-Wave Velocity beneath Anatolia from the First Arrivals. Bulletin of International Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, 30, 77-85.
[40] Endrun, B., Meier, T., Lebedev, S., Bohnoff, M., Stavrakakis, G. and Harjes, H.P. (2008) S Velocity Structure and Radial Anisotropy in the Aegean Region from Surface Wave Dispersion. Geophysical Journal International, 174, 593-616.
[41] Karahan, A.E., Berckhemer, H. and Baier, B. (2001) Crustal Structure at the Western End of the North Anatolian Fault Zone from Deep Seismic Sounding. Annali Di Geopfisica, 44, 49-68.
[42] Karabulut, H., Ozalaybey, S., Taymaz, T., Aktar, M., Selvi, O. and Kocaoglu, A. (2003) A Tomographic Image of the Crustal Structure in the Eastern Marmara. Geophysical Research Letters, 30, 2277.
[43] Dziewonski, A.M., Bloch, S. and Landisman, M. (1969) A Technique for the Analysis of Transient Seismic Signals. Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, 59, 427-444.
[44] Bhattacharya, S.N. (1983) Higher Order Accuracy in Multiple Filter Technique. Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, 73, 1395-1406.
[45] Herrmann, R.B. and Ammon, C.J. (2004) Surface Waves, Receiver Functions and Crustal Structure, Computer Programs in Seismology, Version 3.30. Saint Louis University, Saint Louis.
[46] Valyus, V.P., Keilis-Borok, V.I. and Levshin, A. (1969) Determination of the Upper-Mantle Velocity Cross-Section for Europe. Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 185, 3.
[47] Knopoff, L. (1972) Observations and Inversion of Surface-Wave Dispersion. Developments in Geotectonics, 13, 497-519.
[48] Knopoff, L. and Panza, G.F. (1977) Resolution of Upper Mantle Structure Using Higher Modes of Rayleigh Waves. Annales Geophysicae, 30, 491-505.
[49] Ludwig, W.J., Nafe, J.E. and Drake, C.L. (1970) Seismic Refraction, the Sea. Vol. 4 (Part 1), Wiley-Interscience, New York, 53-84.
[50] Saroglu, F., Emre, O. and Kuscu, I. (1992) Active Fault Map of Turkey. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Turkey.
[51] Kanasewich, E.R. (1973) Time Sequence Analysis in Geophysics. The University of Alberta Press, Camrose.
[52] De Meersman, K., Van der Baan, A. and Kendall, J.M. (2006) Signal Extraction and Automated Polarization Analysis of Multi Component Array Data. Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, 96, 2415-2430.
[53] Osmansahin, I. and Sayil, N. (2001) Near Field Travel-Time Solutions for Anatolia. Journal of the Balkan Geophysical Society, 4, 3-8.
[54] Bekler, T. and Gurbuz, C. (2008) Insight into the Crustal Structure of the Eastern Marmara Region, NW Turkey. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 165, 295-309.
[55] Urban, L., Cichowicz, A. and Vaccari, F. (1993) Computation of Analytical Partial Derivatives of Phase and Group Velocities for Rayleigh Waves with Respect to Structural Parameters. Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, 37, 14-36.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.