Share This Article:

Does Education Affect Individual Well-Being? Some Italian Empirical Evidences

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:3682KB) PP. 319-329
DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2014.45032    4,187 Downloads   5,060 Views   Citations


Using data from the last European Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC), this paper focuses on the measurement of well-being and on its association with education. EU-SILC survey gives information on several aspects of people’s daily life (i.e. housing, labour, health, education, finance, material deprivation and possession of durables) allowing a multi-dimensional approach to the study of well-being, poverty and social exclusion. For our aims we have considered only survey data collected in Italy. Due to the multidimensionality of well-being concept, we have selected some variables related principally to four main dimensions of well-being, which are financial endowment, housing conditions and goods possessions, health status, and environment. A first explanatory analysis via multivariate regression model has highlighted the effect of education on the factors considered. Finally, a latent class regression analysis has been used to cluster individuals into mutually exclusive latent classes which identify different intensities of well-being (the latent trait) taking into account the effect of education in the membership probability of each latent class.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Giambona, F. , Porcu, M. and Sulis, I. (2014) Does Education Affect Individual Well-Being? Some Italian Empirical Evidences. Open Journal of Statistics, 4, 319-329. doi: 10.4236/ojs.2014.45032.


[1] Boarini, R., Johansson, A. and Mira d’Ercole, M. (2006) Alternative Measures of Well-Being. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 476, OECD Publishing, Paris.
[2] Kuznets, S. (1934) National Income, 1929-1932. Senate Document No. 124, 73rd Congress, 2nd Session.
[3] Nordhaus, W.D. and Tobin, J. (1973) Is Growth Obsolete? Columbia University Press, Columbia.
[4] Jones, C.J. and Klenow, P.J. (2010) Beyond GDP? Welfare across Countries and Time. WP No. 16352, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge.
[5] OECD (2011) Compendium od OECD Well-Being Indicators. OECD, Paris.
[6] Headey, B.W., Muffels, R.J.A. and Wooden, M. (2004) Money Doesn’t Buy Happiness or Does It? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption. IZA Discussion Papers 1218, Institute for the Study of Labor, Bonn.
[7] Van Praag, B.M.S., Frijters, P. and Ferrer-i-Carbonel, A. (2003) The Anatomy of Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 51, 29-49.
[8] Rapley, M. (2003) Quality of Life Research. A Critical Introduction. Sage, London.
[9] Desjardins, R. (2008) Researching the Links between Education and Well-Being. European Journal of Education, 43, 23-35.
[10] Noll, H.H. (2006) European Survey Data: Rich Sources for Quality of Life Research. ISQOLS Conference “Prospects for Quality of Life in the New Millennium”, Grahamstown, 17-20 July 2006.
[11] Stutzer, A. and Frey, B.S. (2010) Recent Advances in the Economics of Individual Subjective Well-Being. Social Research, 77, 679-714.
[12] Maasoumi, E. and Nickelsburg, G. (1988) Multidimensional Measures of Well-Being and an Analysis of Inequality in the Michigan Data. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 6, 327-334.
[13] Cnel-Istat (2013) Il benessere equo e sostenibile in Italia. Cnel-Istat, Roma.
[14] Cheli, B., Lecchini, L. and Masserini, L. (2002) An Ordinal Logit Model for Subjective Well-Being among the Italian Older Adults. In: Blasius, J., Hox, J., De Leeuw, E. and Smidt, P., Eds., Social Science Methodology in the New Millennium, Leske & Budrich, Opladen.
[15] Fleche, S., Smith, C. and Sorsa P. (2011) Exploring Determinants of Subjective Wellbeing in OECD Countries: Evidence from the World Value Survey. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 921, OECD Publishing, Paris.
[16] Decanq, K. and Lugo, M.A. (2010) Weights in Multidimensional Indices of Well-Being: An Overview. CES Discussion Paper, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven.
[17] Wolff, E.N. and Zacharias, A. (2009) Household Wealth and the Measurement of Economic Well-Being in the United States. Journal of Economic Inequality, 7, 83-115.
[18] Hartog, J. and Oosterbeek, H. (1998) Health, Wealth and Happiness: Why Pursue a Higher Education? Economics of Education Review, 17, 245-256.
[19] Headey, B. and Warren, D. (2008) Families, Incomes and Jobs. A Statistical Report on Waves 1 to 5 of the HILDA Survey, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, University of Melbourne, Melbourne.
[20] Cummins, R. (2000) Objective and Subjective Quality of Life: An Interactive Model. Social Indicators Research, 52, 55-72.
[21] Hickson, H. and Dockery, A. (2008) Is Ignorance Bliss? In: Alam, K., Ed., Exploring the Links between Education, Expectations and Happiness, in: Australian Conference of Economists, Economic Society of Australia (Queensland) Inc., Brisbane, 1-24.
[22] Becker, G.S. (1962) Human Capital. Columbia University Press, New York.
[23] Bradshaw, J., Hoelscher, P. and Richardson, D. (2006) Comparing Child Well-Being in OECD Countries: Concepts and Methods. Working Paper, Unicef.
[24] Easterlin, R.A. (1974) Does Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical Evidence. In: David. P.A. and Reder, M.W., Eds., Nations and Households in Economic Growth, Academic Press, New York, 89-125.
[25] Peiró, A. (2006) Happiness, Satisfaction and Socio-Economic Conditions: Some International Evidence. Journal of Socio-Economics, 35, 348-365.
[26] Veenhoven, R. (1996) Developments in Satisfaction Research. Social Indicators Research, 37, 1-46.
[27] Dockery, A.M. (2010) Education and Happiness in the School-to-Work Transition. NCVER Research Report No. 2239.
[28] Boarini, R. and Strauss, H. (2010) What Is the Private Return to Tertiary Education? New Evidence from 21 OECD Countries. OECD Journal: Economic Studies, 1, 7-31.
[29] Sianesi, B. and Van Reenen, J. (2003) The Returns to Education: Macroeconomics. Journal of Economic Surveys, 17, 157-200.
[30] Miyamoto, K. and Chevalier, A. (2010) Education and Health, OECD. Improving Health and Social Cohesion through Education, Chapter 4, 111-180.
[31] De Looper, M. and Lafortune, G. (2009) Measuring Disparities in Health Status and in Access and Use of Health Care in OECD Countries. OECD Health WP, No. 43, OECD Publishing, Paris.
[32] Baker, F.B. and Kim, S.H. (2004) Item Response Theory: Parameter Estimation Techniques. 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
[33] Rizopoulos, D. (2006) ltm: An R Package for Latent Variable Modelling and Item Response Theory Analyses. Journal of Statistical Software, 17, 1-25.
[34] Samejima, F. (1969) Estimation of Latent Ability Using a Response Pattern of Graded Scores (Psychometric Monograph No. 17). Psychometric Society, Richmond.
[35] Leckie, G. and Charlton, C. (2013) runMLwiN—A Program to Run the MLwiN Multilevel Modelling Software from within Stata. Journal of Statistical Software, 52, 1-40.
[36] Linzer, D.A. and Lewis, J.B. (2011) poLCA: A R Package for Polytomous Variable Latent Class Analysis. Journal of Statistical Software, 42, 1-29.
[37] Vermunt, J.K. (2008) Latent Class and Finite Mixture Models for Multilevel Data Sets. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 17, 33-51.
[38] Agresti, A. (2002) Categorical Data Analysis. Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken.
[39] Lanza, S.T., Collins, L.M., Lemmon, D.R. and Schafer, J.L. (2007) PROC LCA: A SAS Procedure for Latent Class Analysis. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 671-694.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.