Diabetic Renal-Retinal Syndrome and Inflammatory Markers of Acute Phase


Objective: To determine the association between the acute inflammatory markers and Diabetic Renal-Retinal Syndrome in our patients. Methods: A total of 44 patients were included in this transverse (cross sectional), observational, analytical, and comparative study. Two groups of patients were created. Results: In patients with chronic renal failure, stages 3, 4, or 5 (scale 1 to 5) were identified and divided into two groups: Group I (Patients with concomitant diabetic retinopathy stabilized with photocoagulation) 22 patients. Group II (Patients with progression of retinopathy, after photocoagulation, in the form of intraocular bleeding) 22 patients. The number of patients with chronic renal failure in stage 3 was: Group I; 16. In Group II; 12 patients (OR: 1.0). Stage 4: Group I; 4 patients. Group II: 3 patients (OR: 1.0, CI 95%; 0.3843 - 2.021). Stage 5: Group I; 2 patients. Group II; 7 patients (OR: 1.8148, CI 95%; 1.0448 - 3.1523; Chi-squared (x2) 2.7450, p = 0.097). t-Test found statistical significance in Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR): p < 0.0001 (CI 95%; 7.8959 - 23.2515); R = 0.56 p = 0.001; and OR = 1.959 (CI 95%; 1.193 - 3.217). By non-parametric tests, C-reactive protein with binomial test showed p < 0.001. ESR showed p < 0.001 with U of Mann Whitney. Conclusions: With this study revealed a possible association of inflammatory markers with Diabetic Renal-Retinal Syndrome.

Share and Cite:

Sepúlveda-Cañamar, F. , Hernández, R. , Baéz, J. and Cortés, J. (2014) Diabetic Renal-Retinal Syndrome and Inflammatory Markers of Acute Phase. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 4, 194-201. doi: 10.4236/jdm.2014.43028.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Brown, J.B., Pedula, K.L. and Summers, K.H. (2003) Diabetic Retinopathy: Contemporary Prevalence in a Well-Controlled Population. Diabetes Care, 26, 2637-2942.
[2] Klein, R., Klein, B. and Moss, S. (1992) Epidemiology of Proliferative Diabetic Renitopathy. Diabetes Care, 15, 1875-1887. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.15.12.1875
[3] Trevisan, R., Vedovato, M., Mazzon, C., Coracina, A., Iori, E., Tiengo, A., et al. (2002) Concomitance of Diabetic Retinopathy and Proteinuria Accelerates the Rate of Decline of Kidney Function in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Diabetes Care, 25, 2026-2031. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.25.11.2026
[4] Stolar, M. (2010) Glycemic Control and Compilations in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The American Journal of Medicine, 123, S3-S11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.12.004
[5] Williams, M.E. (2011) The Goal of Blood Pressure Control for Prevention of Early Diabetic Microvascular Complications. Current Diabetes Reports, 11, 323-329.
[6] Del Cacizo-Gómez, F.J., Fernández Pérez, C., Moreno Ruiz, I., Pérez-Jáuregui, C.D., Silveira Rodríguez, B., González, L.T., et al. (2011) Microvascular Complications and Risk Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Endocrinología y Nutrición, 58, 163-168.
[7] Singh, D., Winocour, P. and Farrington, K. (2009) Erythropoietic Stress and Anemia in Diabetes Mellitus. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 5, 204-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2009.17
[8] Thomas, M., Tsalamandris, C., MacIsaac, R. and Jerums, G. (2005) Anaemia in Diabetes: An Emerging Complication of Microvascular Disease. Current Diabetes Reviews, 1, 107-126.
[9] Conway, B., Miller, R., Klein, R. and Orchard, T. (2009) Prediction of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy with Hemoglobin Level. Archives of Ophthalmology, 127, 1494-1499.
[10] Kaul, K., Hodgkinson, A., Tarr, J.M., Kohner, E.M. and Chibber, R. (2010) Is Inflammation a Common Retinal-RenalNerve Pathogenic Link in Diabetes? Current Diabetes Reviews, 6, 294-303.
[11] Klein, B.E., Knudtson, M.D., Tsai, M.Y. and Klein, R. (2009) The Relation of Markers of Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction to the Prevalence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy: Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. JAMA Ophthalmology, 127, 1175-1182.
[12] Friedman, E.A. and L’Esperance, F.A. (1980) Diabetic Renal-Retinal Syndrome: The Prognosis Improves. JAMA Internal Medicine, 140, 1149-1150.
[13] Cowan, C.L. (1987) Diabetic Renal-Retinal Syndrome: Does Tight Control Help? Transplantation Proceedings, 19, 86-89.
[14] Sessa, A., Battini, G., Meroni, M., Agneli, F., Giordano, F. and Tarelli, L.T. (1999) Renal-Retinal Diabetic Syndrome. Nephron, 83, 285-286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000045529
[15] Izzedine, H., Fongoro, S., Pajot, O., Beaufils, H. and Deray, G. (2001) Retinopathy, Hematuria and Diabetic Nephropathy. Nephron, 88, 382-383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000046025
[16] Meleth, A.D., Agrón, E., Chan, C.C., Reed, G.F., Arora, K., Byrnes, G., Csaky, K.G., Ferris III, F.L. and Chew, E.Y. (2005) Serum Inflammatory Markers in Diabetic Retinopathy. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 46, 4295-4301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.04-1057
[17] Shiraishi, F.G., StringuettaBelik, F., Oliveira e Silva, V.R., Martin, L.C., Hueb, J.C., De Souza Gon?alves, R., et al. (2012) Inflammation, Diabetes, and Chronic Kidney Disease: Role of Aerobic Capacity. Experimental Diabetes Research, 2012, Article ID: 750286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/750286
[18] Fante, R., Durairaj, V. and Oliver, S. (2010) Diabetic Retinopathy: An Update on Treatment. The American Journal of Medicine, 123, 213-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.09.020
[19] Levey, A., Steven, L., Schmid, C., Zhang, Y., Castro, A., Feldman, H., et al. (2009) A New Equation to Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150, 604-612.
[20] Varma, R., Macias, G.L., Torres, M., Klein, R., Pe?a, F.Y., Azen, S.P. and Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group (2007) Biologic Risk Factors Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 114, 1332-1340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.10.023
[21] Mendelssohn, D., Yeates, K., Ethier, J., Trpeski, L., Na, Y., Bragg-Gresham, J., Eichleay, M.A., Pisoni, R.L. and Port, F.K. (2007) DOPPS Estimate of Patient Life Years Attributable to Modifiable Hemodialysis Practices in Canada. Nephrology News & Issues, 21, 69-70, 72, 74-76 passim.
[22] Port, F.K., Pisoni, R.L., Bragg-Gresham, J.L., Satayathum, S.S., Young, E.W., Wolfe, R.A. and Held, P.J. (2004) DOPPS Estimates of Patient Life Years Attributable to Modifiable Hemodialysis Practices in the United States. Blood Purification, 22, 175-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000074938
[23] Sepúlveda, F.J., Pérez, P., Medinilla, M.G. and Aboytes, C.A. (2012) Anemia as a Factor Related to the Progression of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy after Photocoagulation. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, 26, 454-457. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2012.04.013
[24] Deva, R., Alias, M.A., Colville, D., Tow, F.K.F., Ooi, Q.L., Chew, S., et al. (2011) Vision-Threatening Retinal Abnormalities in Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 3 to 5. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 6, 1866-1871. http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.10321110
[25] Costenbader, K., Chibnik, L. and Schur, P. (2007) Discordance between Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and C-Reactive Protein Measurements: Clinical Significance. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, 25, 746-749.
[26] Colomber, I., Pouchot, J., Kronz, V., Hanras, X., Capron, L., Duriex, P. and Wyplosz, B. (2010) Agreement between Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and C-Reactive Protein in Hospital Practice. American Journal of Medicine, 123, 863.e7-863.e13.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.