Share This Article:

Archaeo-Geophysical Survey around Itay El-Baroud Area, Nile Delta, Egypt

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:3388KB) PP. 45-57
DOI: 10.4236/ad.2014.23006    3,151 Downloads   4,726 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Around the Nile Delta branches, the ancient settlements had been created and left their remains to be good witness for the paleoenvironment during the Holocene time. Therefore, tracing of these remains and their associated environments are of great importance. The area of study is located in the central part of the western Nile Delta (west of Rosetta branch), around Itay El-Baroud city. It is located between Latitudes 30°50'N - 31°N and Longitudes 30°35'E - 30°45'30''E covering an area of about 380 Km2. It is mainly covered with cultivated lands and is characterized by its numerous archaeological hills such as Kom Geif. It also includes the Greek trading centre of Naukratis. The city was extinct about the beginning of the third century A.D. The archaeological site of Naukratis is now occupied by Kom Geif village. Integrated geophysical studies including magnetic and multi-frequency electromagnetic methods were conducted at Kom Geif village. The study area is divided into two main sectors sites: A (100 m × 20 m in length) and B (40 m × 40 m in length), respectively in 18 grids. Each gird is 10 m × 20 m and subdivided into a number of parallel traverses with spacing of 0.5 meter. Site A was selected to carry out a detailed electromagnetic survey in E-W direction, 20 zigzag profiles with 100 m length and 1 m interval were carried out. The station intervals along each line were 1 m. Based on the interpretation of the acquired geophysical data, seven structures of possible archaeological interest (mud bricks) have been recognized in a relatively small area at the southern end of Kom Geif Lake. Further detail geophysical studies are important to establish the nature, date, depth and state of preservation of these buried archaeological remains.

Cite this paper

Shaaban, H. , El-Qady, G. , Al-Sayed, E. , Khozaym, A. , Al-Emam, A. and Ghazala, H. (2014) Archaeo-Geophysical Survey around Itay El-Baroud Area, Nile Delta, Egypt. Archaeological Discovery, 2, 45-57. doi: 10.4236/ad.2014.23006.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Abbas, M. A., Abdallatif, T. F., Shaaban, F., Salem, A., & Suh, M. (2005). Archaeological Investigation of the Eastern Extensions of the Karnak Temple Using Ground-Penetrating Radar and Magnetic Tools. Geoarchaeology, 20, 537-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gea.20062
[2] Abdallatif, T. F, Abd El-All, E. M., Suh, M., Mohamad, R. M., & El-Hemaly, I. A. (2005). Magnetic Tracing at Abu Sir (Land of Forgotten Pyramids), Northern Egypt. Geoarchaeology, 20, 438-503.
[3] Abdallatif, T. F., Mousa, S. E., & El-Bassiony, A. (2003). Geophysical Investigation for Mapping the Archaeological Features at Qantir, Sharqyia, Egypt. Archaeological Prospection, 10, 27-42.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arp.190
[4] Bossuet, G., Camerlynck, C., Brehonnet, C., & Petit, C. (2001). Magnetic Prospecting of Diachronic Structures (Antiquity to First World War) on the Site of Sanctuary of Ribemont-sur-Ancre, Somme, France. Archaeological Prospection, 8, 67-77.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-0763(200103)8:1<67::AID-ARP153>3.0.CO;2-Y
[5] Clark, A. J. (1990). Seeing Beneath the Soil Prospecting Methods in Archaeology. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 176p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-0763(200103)8:1<67::AID-ARP153>3.0.CO;2-Y
[6] Coulson, W. D. E., & Leonard Jr., A. (1982). Investigations at Naukratis and Environs, 1980 and 1981. American Journal of Archaeology, 86, 361-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/504426
[7] Fitterman, D. V., & Stewart, M. T. (1986). Transient Electromagnetic Sounding for Groundwater, Geophysics, 51, 995-1005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.1442158
[8] Geoscan Research (1994). Instruction Manual Version 1.01. (Geoplot 2.01). Bradford, West Yorkshire, England, Geoscan Research.
[9] Ghazala, H. H., El-Mahmoudi, A. S., & Abdallatif, T. F. (2003). Archaeogeophysical Study on the Site of Tell Toukh EL-Qaramous, Sharkia Governorate, East Nile Delta, Egypt. Archaeological Prospection, 10, 43-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arp.195
[10] GSSI (1998). Operating System Version 1.10 (GEM-300). North Salem, NH 03073-0097 USA, Geophysical Survey System Inc. 79p.
[11] Herbich, T. (2003). Archaeological Geophysics in Egypt. The Polish contribution. Archaeologia Polona, 41, 13-55.
[12] Herwagner, J., Muarer, H., & Green, A. G. (2000). 3-D Inversion of Magnetic Gradiometer Data in Archaeological Prospecting. Possibilities and Limitations. Geophysics, 65, 849-860.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arp.195
[13] Huang, H., & Fraser, D. C. (1998). Magnetic Permeability and Electrical Resistivity Mapping with a Multi-Frequency Airborne EM system. Exploration Geophysics, 29, 249-253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EG998249
[14] Kamei, H., Atya, M. A, Abdallatif, T. F., Mori, M., & Hemthavy, (2002). Ground-Penetrating Radar and Magnetic Survey to the West of Al-Zayyan Temple, Kharga Oasis, Al-Wadi Al-Jadeed (New Valley), Egypt. Archaeological Prospection, 9, 93-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arp.185
[15] Keiswetter, D. A, Novikova, E., Won, I. J., Hall, T., & Hanson, D. (1997). Development of a Monostatic, Multi-Frequency Electromagnetic Mine Detector. Society of Optical Engineering, 3079, 831-839.
[16] Keiswetter, D. A., & Won, I. J. (1997). Multi-Frequency Electromagnetic Signature of the Cloud Chamber, Nevada Test Site. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, 2, 99-104.
[17] Murray, C., & Keiswetter, D. A. (1998). Application of Magnetic and Multi-Frequency EM Techniques for Landfill Investigations, Case Histories. Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Environmental and Engineering Problems, Proceedings, 445-452.
[18] Nabighian, M. N., & Macanae, J. C. (1991). Time-Domain Electromagnetic Prospecting Methods. In M. N., Nabighian, (Ed.), Electromagnetic Methods in Applied Geophysics, Vol. 2 (pp. 427-514), Society of Exploration Geophysics. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.9781560802686.ch6
[19] Odah, H., Abdallatif, T. F., El-Hemaly, I. A., & Abd El-All, E. M. (2005). Gradiometer Survey to Locate the Ancient Remains Distributed to the Northeast of the Zoser Pyramid, Saqqara, Giza, Egypt. Archaeological Prospection, 12, 61-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arp.245
[20] Reynolds, J. M. (1997). An Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd. 796p.
[21] Scollar, I., Tabbagh, T., Hesse, A., & Herzog, I. (1990). Archaeological Prospecting and Remote Sensing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 692p.
[22] Sternberg, B. K., & Birken, R. A. (1999). A New Method of Subsurface Imaging, The LASI High Frequency Ellipticity System. Part 3, System Tests and Field Surveys. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, 4, 227-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.4133/JEEG4.4.227
[23] Van Wesemael, B. (1988). The Relation between Natural Landscape and Distribution of Archaeological Remains in the Northeastern Nile Delta. In E. C. M. Van Den Brink (Ed.), The Archaeology of the Nile Delta: Problems and Priorities (pp. 125-134). Amsterdam: Netherlands Foundation for Archaeological Research in Egypt.
[24] Wilson, P. (2006). The Survey of Sais (Sa El-Hagar) 1997-2002. London: Egyptian Exploration Society, 336p.
[25] Witten, A. J., & Calvert, G. (1999). Characterizing the Distribution of Near-Surface Solution Channels Using Electromagnetic Induction and Ground Penetrating Radar. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, 4, 35-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.4133/JEEG4.1.35
[26] Won, I. J, Keiswetter, D. A., Hanson, D. R., Novikova, E., & Hall, T. M. (1997). GEM-3: A Monostatic Broadband Electromagnetic Induction Sensor. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, 2, 53-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.4133/JEEG2.1.53
[27] Won, I. J. (1980). A Wide Band Electromagnetic Exploration Method, Some Theoretical and Experimental Results. Geophysics, 45, 928-940. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.1441097
[28] Won, I. J., Keiswetter, D. A., & Novikova, E. (1998). Electromagnetic Induction Spectroscopy. Journal of Environmental Engineering Geophysics 3, 27-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.4133/JEEG3.1.27
[29] Won, I. J., Keiswetter, D. A., Fields, G. R. A., & Sutton, L. C. (1996). GEM-2: A New Multi-Frequency Sensor. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, 1, 129-138.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4133/JEEG1.2.129

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.