Iron Deficiency Anemia in School Age Children in District Karak Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan


The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in school-going children. Both Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia have considerable adverse effect on human health. Among the different negative health concerns, including stunt development, less developed immunity, lower IQ level, no proper physical work capacity, more fatigue, maternal mortality rates, young ones born with low birth weight, birth complications and infant mortality rates are some of the remarkable health concerns posed by iron deficiency level. Our study sample was consisting of 420 school age children of both genders. The blood samples were collected in EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) tubes from different school and health maternity centres by trained and veteran persons. Questionnaires were utilised for the data collection, at the time of blood samples collection. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrite (Hct), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell and red blood cell (RBC) were determine by automatic hematological analyzer model Symex Ks-21 having two reagents, cell pack and Stromatolyser-wwt 500 ml. The total percentage of anemia recorded in school age children was 34.0%. In tehsil Banda Daud Shah, the incidence of anemia was high up to 43.6% while in tehsil Takhti Nasrati and Karak was 32.1% and 26.4% respectively. The percentage was higher in girls (38.9%) than in boys (31.0%). The anemia percentage was recorded high (55.8%) in lower socioeconomic family children, than middle class (32.2%) and upper class (17%). The percentage of anemic children was also high (40%) in age group of 10 - 12 years. Pale skin was the most common symptom of anemia.

Share and Cite:

Ullah, I. , Zahid, M. , Alam Sthanadar, A. , Alam Sthanadar, I. , Asmat Ali, P. , Mudassirshah,  . , Ismail Khan, M. , Kaleem, M. , Aslam, M. , Khayyam,  . , Atiq-Ur-Rehman,  . and Ullah, W. (2014) Iron Deficiency Anemia in School Age Children in District Karak Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Open Journal of Blood Diseases, 4, 9-15. doi: 10.4236/ojbd.2014.42002.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Idris, M. and Rehman, A.U. (2005) Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Moderate to Severely Anaemic Patients. Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC, 17, 45-47.
[2] Ullah, I., Zahid, M., Khan, M.I. and Shah, M. (2013) Prevalence of Anemia in Pregnant Women in District Karak Khyberpakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. International Journal of Biosciences, 3, 77-83.
[3] Bakhtiar, U., Khan, Y. and Nasar, R. (2007) Relationship between Maternal Related Hemoglobin and Perintal Outcome. Rawal Medical Journal, 32, 102-104.
[4] Molla, A., Khaurshed, M. and Molla, A.M. (1992) Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Children of the Urban Slums of Karachi. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, 42, 118-121.
[5] Thaver, I.H. and Baig, L. (1994) Anaemia in Children, Can Simple Observation by Primary Care Provider Help in Diagnosis? Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, 44, 282-284.
[6] Christofides, A., Schauer, C. and Zlotkin, S.H. (2005) Iron Deficiency Anemia in among Children: Addressing a Global Public Health Problem within a Canadian Context. Paediatrics and Child Health, 10, 597-601.
[7] Looker, A.C., Dallman, P.R., Carrol, M.D., Gunter, E.W. and Johnson, C.L. (1997) Prevalence of Iron Deficiency in the United States. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 277, 973-976.
[8] Weissinger, F. (1999) Basic Principals and Clinical Significance of Iron-Deficiency. Fortschritte der Medizin, 115, 35-38.
[9] Sakiewiez, P. and Pagarini, E. (1998) The Use of Iron in Patients on Chronic Dialysis: Mistake and Misconceptions. Journal of Nephrology, 11, 5-15.
[10] Irwin, J.J. and Kirchner, J.T. (2001) Anemia in Children. American Family Physician, 64, 1379-1386.
[11] Villapando, S., Shamah-Levy, T., Ramirez-Silva, C.V., Mejia-Rodriguez, F. and Rivera, J.A. (2003) Prevalence of Anemia in Children 1 to 12 Years of Age. Results from a Nationwide Probabilistic Survey in Mexico. Salud Pública de México, 45, S490-S498.
[12] Ramakrishnan, U. (2002) Prevalence of Micronutrient Malnutrition Worldwide. Nutrition Reviews, 60, S46-S52.
[13] Akhtar, S., Ahmed, A., Ahmad, A., Ali, Z., Riaz, M. and Ismail, T. (2013) Iron Status of the Pakistani Population—Current Issues and Strategies. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 22, 340-347.
[14] Karaoglu, L., Pehlivan, E., Egri, M., Deprem, C., Gunes, G., Genc, M.F. and Temel, I. (2010) The Prevalence of Nutri- tion Anemia in Pregnancy in an East Anatolian Province, Turkey. BMC Public Health, 10, 329.
[15] Harfield, D. (2010) Iron Deficiency Is a Public Health Problem in Canadian Infant and Children. Paediatrics and Child Health, 15, 347-350.
[16] Yates, J.M., Logan, E.C. and Stewart, R.M. (2004) Iron Deficiency Anemia in General Practice: Clinical Outcomes over Three Years and Factors Influencing Diagnostic Investigations. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 80, 405-410.
[17] Vahidinia, A. and Shams, S. (2004) Irondeficiency amongst Nursing Students. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 58, 389-393.
[18] Paracha, P.I., Hameed, A., Simon, J., Jamil, A. and Nawab, G. (1997) Prevalence of Anemia in Simi-Urban Areas of Peshawar Pakistan: A Challenge for Health Professionals and Policy Makers. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, 47, 49-53.
[19] Stoltzfus, R.J. (2003) Iron Deficiency: Global Prevalence and Consequences. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 24, S99-S103.
[20] Verma, M., Chhatwal, J. and Kaur, G. (1998) Prevalence of Anemia among Urban School Children of Panjab. Indian Pediatrics, 35, 1181-1185.
[21] Muthayya, S., Thankachan, P., Zimmermann, M.B., Andersson, M., Eilander, A., Miquith, D., Hurrell, R.F. and Kurpad, A.V. (2007) Low Anemia Prevalence in School-Aged Children in Bangalore, South India: Possible Effect of School Health Initiatives. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61, 865-869.
[22] Jain, N. and Jain, V.M. (2012) Prevalence of Anemia in School Children. Academic Journals, 3, 1-4.
[23] Ramzan, M., Ali, I. and Salam, A. (2009) Iron Deficiency Anemia in School Children of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8, 259-263.
[24] Villapando, S., Dhamah-Levy, T., Garcia-Guerra, A., Mundo-Rosas, V., Dominguez, C. and Mejia-Rodriguez, F. (2009) The Prevalence of Anemia Decreased in Mexican Preschool and School-Age Children from 1999 to 2006. Salud Pública de México, 51, S507-S514.
[25] Zimmermann, M.B., Zeder, C., Chaouki, N., Saad, A., Torresani, T. and Hurrell, R.F. (2003) Dual Fortification of Salt with Iodine and Microencapsulated Iron: A Randomized, Double Blind, Controlled Trial in Moroccan School Children. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77, 425-432.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.