Self-Enhancement of Scalar and Vector Holographic Gratings in Azobenzene Molecular Glassy Films


Self-enhancement (SE) effect of scalar and vector holographic gratings (HG) recorded in three different azobenzene molecular glassy films is experimentally studied in both transmission and reflection modes at 532 and 633 nm. The maximal SE factor (the ratio of diffraction efficiency to its initial value) SEF = 42 has been achieved. It is shown that the model of complementary HG can be applied also in scalar transmission thin HG case to explain coherent SE. The possibility of vector HG coherent SE in transmission mode is experimentally demonstrated for the first time (SEF = 4.3). The possibility of coherent HG SE in reflection mode is also established for the first time (SEF = 21). HG recording processes as well as coherent SE processes are found to be independent in transmission and reflection modes being determined by volume and surface relief HG, respectively. The permittivity gradient mechanism is proposed to explain the coherent SE of surface relief HG. Both HG recording and coherent SE efficiencies strongly decrease when HG period is decreased from 2 mm to 0.5 mm. No relaxational SE effect is found. Coherent SE effect in molecular glasses is found to be weaker than in inorganic materials.

Share and Cite:

Ozols, A. , Kokars, V. , Augustovs, P. , Malinovskis, D. , Traskovskis, K. , Zarins, E. and Ivanovs, G. (2014) Self-Enhancement of Scalar and Vector Holographic Gratings in Azobenzene Molecular Glassy Films. Optics and Photonics Journal, 4, 143-152. doi: 10.4236/opj.2014.46015.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Zhao, Y. and Ikeda, T. (2009) Smart Light-Responsive Materials.Azobenzene-Containing Polymers and Liquid Crystals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken.
[2] Ozols, A., Salminen, O. and Reinfelde, M. (1994) Relaxational Self-Enhancement of Holographic Gratings in Amorphous As2S3 Films. Journal of Applied Physics, 75, 3326-3334.
[3] Ozols, A., Nordman, N., Salminen, O. and Riihola, P. (1997) Holographic Recording in Amorphous Semiconductor Films. Proceedings of SPIE, 2968, 282-291.,
[4] Gaylord, T.K., Rabson, T.A., Tittel, F.K. and Quick, C.R. (1973) Self-Enhancement of LiNbO3 Holograms. Journal of Applied Physics, 44, 896-897.
[5] Ozols, A.O. (1979) Self-Enhancement of Amplitude Holograms in Additively Coloured KBr Crystals. Latvijas PSR Zinātnu Akadēmijas Vēstis Fiz. Tehn.Zin.Sērija, 45-52 (in Russian).
[6] Rickermann, F., Riehemann, S., Buse, K., Dirksen, D. and von Bally, G. (1996) Diffraction Efficiency Enhancement of Holographic Gratings in Bi12 Ti0.76V0.24O20 Crystals after Recording. Journal of the Optical Society of America B, 13, 2299-2305.
[7] Pashkevich, V., Ketolainen, P. and Salminen, O. (1996) Holographic Self-Amplification in Amorphous As-Se Semiconductor Films. Journal of Modern Optics, 43, 1563-1567.
[8] Grzymala, R. and Keinonen, T. (1998) Self-Enhancement of Holographic Gratings in Dichromated Gelatin and Polyvinyl Alcohol Films. Applied Optics, 37, 6623-6626.
[9] Aleksejeva, J. andTeteris, J. (2010) Volume Grating Recording in Acrylate-Based Photopolymers. Latvian Journal of Physics and Technical Sciences, 13-22.
[10] Shvarts, K., Ozols, A., Augustov, P. and Reinfelde, M. (1987) Photorefraction and Self-Enhancement of Holograms in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 Crystals. Ferroelectrics, 75, 231-249.
[11] Ozols, A., Kampars, V., Reinfelde, M. and Kokars, V. (2003) Hologram Recording in Azobenzene Oligomers. Proceedings of SPIE, 5123, 102-109.
[12] Ozols, A., Kokars, V., Augustovs, P., Uiska, I., Traskovskis, K., Mezinskis, G., Pludons, A. and Saharov, D. (2010) Polarization Dependence of Holographic Recording in Glassy Azocompounds. Lithuanian Journal of Physics, 50, 17-25.
[13] Ozols, A., Saharov, D., Kokars, V., Kampars, V., Maleckis, A., Mezinskis, G. and Pludons, A. (2010) Holographic Recording of Surface Relief Gratings in Stilbene Azobenzene Deriavatives at 633 nm. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 249, 1-8,
[14] Kogelnik, H. (1969) Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings. Bell System Technical Journal, 48, 2909-2947.
[15] Fang, G.J., Maclennan, J.E., Yi, Y., Glaser, M.A., Farrow, M., Korblova, E., Walba, D.M., Furtak, T.E. and Clark, N.A. (2013) Athermal Photofluidization of Glasses. Nature Communications, 4, 1-10.
[16] Ozols, A., Augustovs, P., Kokars, V., Traskovskis, K. and Saharov, D. (2013) Effect of Holographic Grating Period on Its Relaxation in a Molecular Glassy Film. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 49, 1-6.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.