Does Male International Migration Effects the Families Left behind Evidence from Gujrat Pakistan


Migration has been a courageous expression of the individual’s will to overcome adversity and to live a better life. Today, globalization, together with advances in communications and transportation, has greatly increased the number of people who have the desire and the capacity to move to other places. The evidence shows that due to flow of remittances the economic status of the families but on the other hand it also has a profound impact on families left behind. They have to face many problems. In this study, an effort has been made to understand the possible impact of migration on families left behind. This study was carried out in District Gujrat of Punjab Pakistan. Purposed sampling technique has been used to select the sample. The findings of the study suggest that male migration has a profound impact on families left behind especially on their spouse and children.

Share and Cite:

Iqbal, S. , Iqbal, F. and Mozmi, R. (2014) Does Male International Migration Effects the Families Left behind Evidence from Gujrat Pakistan. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2, 495-501. doi: 10.4236/jss.2014.26058.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2011) Trends in International Migrant Stock: Migrants by Age and Sex.
[2] Government of Pakistan (2007) Household Integrated Economic Survey (HIES) 2005-06. Federal Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.
[3] Addleton, J. (1984) The Impact of International Migration on Economic Development in Pakistan. Asian Survey, 24, 574-596.
[4] Arif, G.M. and Irfan, M. (1997) Population Mobility across the Pakistani Border: Fifty Year Experience. Pakistan Development Review, 36, 989-1005.
[5] Gazdar, H. (2003) A Review of Migration Issues in Pakistan. Regional Conference on Migration, Development and Pro-Poor Policy Choices in Asia, Dhaka, 22-24 June 2003.
[6] Noman, O. (1991) The Impact of Migration on Pakistan’s Economy and Society. In: Donnan, Hastings and Werbner Pnina, Eds., Economy and Culture in Pakistan: Migrants and Cities in a Muslim Society, Macmillan Academic and Professional, 77-96.
[7] Ellis, F. (2003) A Livelihoods Approach to Migration and Poverty Reduction. Norwich: Department for International Development (DFID).
[8] Katz, E. and Stark, O. (1986) Labor Migration and Risk Aversion in Less Developed Countries. Journal of Labor Economics, 4, 134-149.
[9] Suleri, A.Q. and Savage, K. (2006) Remittance Increases: A Case Study from Pakistan. London: Overseas Development Institute.
[10] Stillman, S., John, G. and David, M. (2012) The Impact of Migration on Child Health: Experimental Evidence from a Migration Lottery Program. Economic Inquiry, 50, 62-81.
[11] Albert, P., Leng, L. and de Brauw, A. (2010) Parental Migration and Child Well-Being in Developing Countries.
[12] McKenzie, D., John, G. and Steven, S. (2007) Moving to Opportunity, Leaving Behind What? Evaluating the Initial Effects of a Migration Policy on Incomes and Poverty in Source Areas. New Zealand Economic Papers, 41, 197-224.
[13] Blau, D.M. (1999) The Effect of Income on Child Development. Review of Economics and Statistics, 81, 261-276.
[14] Duncan, G.J., Brooks-Gunn, J. and Klebanov, P.K. (1994) Economic Deprivation and Early Childhood Development. Child Development, 65, 296-318.
[15] Demaray, M.K., Malecki, C.K., Davidson, L.M., Hodgson, K.K. and Rebus, P.J. (2005) The Relationship between Social Support and Student Adjustment: A Longitudinal Analysis. Psychology in the Schools, 42, 691-706.
[16] Dubow, E.F., Tisak, J., Causey, D., Hryshko, A. and Reid, G. (1991) A Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Stressful Life Events, Social Support, and Social Problem-Solving Skills: Contributions to Children’s Behavioral and Academic Adjustment. Child Development, 62, 583-599.
[17] Chorpita, B.F. and Barlow, D.H. (1998) The Development of Anxiety: The Role of Control in the Early Environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 3-21.
[18] Single-Rushton, W. and Sara, M. (2002) The Living Arrangements of New Unmarried Mothers. Demography, 39, 415-433.
[19] Entwisle, D.R. and Alexander, K.L. (1996) Family Type and Children’s Growth in Reading and Math over the Primary Grades. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 341-355.
[20] Manski, C.F., Sandefur, G.D., McLanahan, S. and Powers, D. (1992) Alternative Estimates of the Effect of Family Structure during Adolescence on High School Graduation. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 87, 25-37.
[21] Seltzer, J.A. (1994) Consequences of Marital Dissolution for Children. Annual Review of Sociology, 20, 235-266.
[22] Mountford, A. (1997) Can a Brain Drain Be Good for Growth in the Source Economy? Journal of Development Economics, 53, 287.
[23] Nichols, R. (2008) A History of Pashtun Migration, 1775-2006. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
[24] Croll, E.J. and Ping, H. (1997) Migration for and against Agriculture in Eight Chinese Villages. The China Quarterly, 149, 128-146.
[25] Jolly, S., Bell, E. and Narayanaswamy, L. (2003) Gender and Migration in Asia: Overview and Annotated Bibliography. Institute of Development Studies, Brighton.
[26] Lefebvre, A. (1990) International Labor Migration from Two Pakistani Villages with Different Forms of Agriculture. Pakistan Development Review, 29, 59-89.
[27] Iqbal, S., Idrees and Mohyuddin, A. (2014) Male Migration: Decision Making Autonomy and Changing Roles among Females Left Behind: A Feminist Approach. World Applied Sciences Journal, 29, 480-485.
[28] Alcaraz, C., Daniel, C. and Alejandrina, S. (2012) Remittances, Schooling, and Child Labor in Mexico. Journal of Development Economics, 97, 156-165.
[29] Cox-Edwards, Alejandra and Manuelita, U. (2003) International Migration, Remittances and Schooling: Evidence from El Salvador. Journal of Development Economics, 72, 429-461.
[30] Zoller, B. and Margaret (1995) Children of Migrant Fathers: The Effects of Father Absence on Swazi Children’s Preparedness for School. Comparative Education Review, 39, 195.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.