Identification of Potential F1 Hybrids in Maize Responsive to Water Deficient Condition


The assessment of heterotic F1 combinations is a basic requisite for hybrid seed development. A set of 30 F1 hybrids along with their parental inbred lines were evaluated under both normal and water deficit conditions for various physiological and agronomic traits. Highly significant mean squares due to general combining ability, specific combining ability and reciprocal effect were observed for all traits under both water regimes. Components of variation exhibited greater estimates for GCA variance (б2g) than SCA variance (б2s) for majority of the traits under both normal and stress conditions depicting the predominant role of additive genetic component. Inbred lines NCIL-20-20, D-157 and OH-8 were found to be the best general combiner on the basis of performance regarding grain yield per plant under water deficit condition. The F1 combinations namely, NCIL-20-20 × D-109, NCIL-20-20 × OH-8 and D-157 × NCIL-20-20 were out-performers based on yield and yield attributes under water deficit conditions. On the basis of our results, we recommend these hybrids for further exploitation to assess their potential for commercial cultivation under water deficit condition.

Share and Cite:

Wattoo, F. , Saleem, M. and Sajjad, M. (2014) Identification of Potential F1 Hybrids in Maize Responsive to Water Deficient Condition. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 1945-1955. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.513208.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Anonymous (2011-2012) Economic Survey of Pakistan. Finance Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.
[2] Araus, J.L., Slafer, G.I., Reynolds, M.P. and Royo, C. (2002) Plant Breeding and Drought in C3 Cereals: What Should We Breed for? Annals of Botany, 89, 925-940.
[3] FAO (2007) Coping with Water Scarcity. Challenge of the Twenty-First Century, UN-Water.
[4] Heisey, P.W. and Edmeades, G.O. (1999) Maize Production in Drought-Stressed Environments: Technical Options and Research Resource Allocation. World Maize Facts and Trends 1997/1998.
[5] Dass, S., Arora, P., Kumari, M. and Dharma, P. (2001) Morphological Traits Determining Drought Tolerance in Maize. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 35, 190-193.
[6] Araus, J.L., Salfer, G.A., Royo, C. and Serret, M.D. (2008) Breeding for Yield Potential and Stress Adaptation in Cereals. Critical Reviews in Plant Science, 27, 377-412.
[7] Frova, C., Krajewski, P., di Fonzo, N., Villa, M. and Sari-Gorla, M. (1999). Genetic Analysis of Drought Tolerance in Maize by Molecular Markers. I. Yield Components. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 99, 280-288.
[8] Ortegon-Morales, A.F., Escobedo-Mendoza, A. and Villarreal, L.Q. (1992) Combining Ability of Sunflower (H. annuus L.) Lines and Comparison among Parent Lines and Hybrids. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Sunflower Conference, Pisa, 7-11 September 1992, 1178-1193.
[9] Hayman, B.I. (1954) The Theory and Analysis of Diallel Crosses. Genetics, 39, 789-809.
[10] Hayman, B.I. (1954) The Analysis of Varience of Diallel Tables. Biometrics, 10, 235-244.
[11] Jinks, J.L. (1954) Analysis of Continous Variation in a Diallel cross of Nicotiana Rustica Varieties. Genetics, 39, 767-788
[12] Singh, S.B. and Gupta, B.B. (2008) Combining Ability Analysis for Some Morpho-Physiological and Yield Components Related to Drought Tolerance in Maize (Zea mays L.). Progressive Research, 3, 181-186.
[13] Sprague, G.F. and Tatum, L.A. (1942) General vs Combining Ability in Single Crosses of Corn. Agronomy, 34, 923-932.
[14] Rajos, B.A. and Sprague, G.F. (1952) A Comparison of Variance of Components in Corn Yield Traits: III. General and Specific Combining Ability and Their Interaction with Locations and Years. Agronomy, 44, 462-466.
[15] Bello, O.B. and Olaoye, G. (2009) Combining Ability for Maize Grain Yield and Other Agronomic Characters in Typical Southern Guinea Savanna Ecology of Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8, 2518-2522.
[16] Gichuru, L., Njoroge, K., Ininda, J. and Peter, L. (2011) Combining Ability of Grain Yield and Agronomic Traits in Diverse Maize Lines with Maize Streak Virus Resistance for Eastern Africa Region. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 2, 432-439.
[17] Chohan, M.S.M., Saleem, M., Ahsan, M. and Asghar, M. (2012) Genetic Analysis of Water Stress Tolerance and Various Morpho-Physiological Traits in Zea mays L. Using Graphical Approach. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 11, 489-500.
[18] Iqbal, J., Saleem, M., Ahsan, M. and Ali, A. (2012) General and Specific Combining Ability Analysis in Maize under Normal and Moisture Stress Conditions. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 22, 1048-1054.
[19] Betran, F.J., Beck, D., Banziger, M. and Edmeades, G.O. (2003) Genetic Analysis of Inbred and Hybrid Grain Yield under Stress and Non Stress Environments in Tropical Maize. Crop Science, 43, 807-817.
[20] Khan, I.A., Habib, S., Sadaqat, H.A. and Tahir, M.H.N. (2004) Selection Criteria Based on Seedling Growth Parameter in Maize Varies under Normal and Water Stress Conditions. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 6, 252-256.
[21] Ibrahim, A.M. and Quick, J.S. (2001) Heritability of Heat Tolerance in Winter and Spring Wheat. Crop Science, 41, 1401-1405.
[22] Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H. and Discky, D.A. (1997) Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York.
[23] Griffing, B. (1956) Concept of General and Specific Combining Ability in Relation to Diallel/Crossing Systems. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 9, 463-493.
[24] Akbar, M. (2008) Genetic Control of High Temperature Tolerance in Zea mays L. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
[25] Rebetzke, G.J., Condom, A.G., Richards, R.A. and Furquhar, G.D. (2003) Gene Action for Leaf Conductance in Three Wheat Crosses. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 54, 381-387.
[26] Rahman, H.U. (2005) Genetic Analysis of Stomatal Conductance in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under Contrasting Temperature Regimes. Journal of Agricultural Science, 143, 161-168.
[27] Saeed, M.T., Saleem, M. and Afzal, M. (2000) Genetic Analysis of Yield and Its Components in Maize Diallel Crosses (Zea mays L.). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 2, 376-378.
[28] Saleem, M., Shahzad, K., Javid, M. and Ahmed, A. (2002) Genetic Analysis for Various Quantitative Traits in Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 4, 379-382.
[29] Yuan, D.H.W., Wei, G., DeXiang, L., JunJie, L., Qiang, L., DY, H., Wu, G.W., Long, D.X., Lu, J. and Liu, Q. (2003) Analysis of Combining Ability and Hereditary Parameters of Main Quantitative Characters of 10 Maize Inbred Lines. Journal of Maize Science, 11, 26-29.
[30] Prakash, S. and Ganguli, D.K. (2004) Combining Ability for Various Yield Component Characters in Maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of Research, Birsa Agricultural University, 16, 55-60.
[31] Rezaei, A.H., Yazdisamadi, B., Zali, A., Rezaei, A.M., Tallei, A. and Zeinali, H. (2005) An Estimate of Heterosis and Combining Ability in Corn Using Diallel Crosses of Inbredlines. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 36, 385-397.
[32] Muraya, M.M., Ndirangu, C.M. and Omolo, E.O. (2006) Heterosis and Combining Ability in Diallel Crosses Involving Maize (Zea mays L.) S1 Lines. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 46, 387-394.
[33] Hussain, I. (2009) Genetics of Drought Tolerance in Maize (Zea Mays L.). Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Planting Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
[34] Reddy, A.R., Chaitanya, K.V. and Vivekanandan, M. (2004) Drought-Induced Responses of Photosynthesis and Antioxidant Metabolism in Higher Plants. Journal of Plant Physiology, 161, 1189-1202.
[35] Olaoye, G., Bello, O.B., Abubaker, A.Y., Olayiwola, L.S. and Adesina, O.A. (2009) Analysis of Moisture Deficit Grain Yield Loss in Drought Tolerant Maize (Zea mays L.) Germplasm Accessions and Its Relationship with Field Performance. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8, 3229-3238.
[36] Ahmad, A. (2002) Genetics of Growing Degree Days, Yield and Its Components in Maize. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
[37] Makumbi, D., Banziger, M., Ribaut, J.M. and Betran, F.J. (2004) Diallel Analysis of Tropical Maize Inbreds under Stress and Optimal Conditions. In: Polland, M., Sawkins, J., Ribaut, J.M. and Hoisington, D., Eds., Resilent Crops for Water Limited Ennvirments: Proceedings of a Workshop Held at Cuernavaca, Mexico City, 24-28 May 2004, 112-113.
[38] Santos, M.F., Camara, T.M.M., Moro, G.V., Costa, E.F.N. and De Souza, C.L. (2007) Responses to Selection and Changes in Combining Ability after Three Cycles of a Modified Reciprocal Recurrent Selection in Maize. Euphytica, 157, 185-194.
[39] Derera, J., Tongoona, P., Vivek, B.S. and Liang, M.D. (2008) Gene Action Controlling Grain Yield and Secondary Traits in Southern African Maize Hybrids under Drought and Non-Drought Environments. Euphytica, 162, 411-422.
[40] Shiri, M., Aliyev, R.T. and Choukan, R. (2010) Water Stress Effects on Combining Ability and Gene Action of Yield and Genetic Properties of Drought Tolerance Indices in Maize. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, 4, 75-84.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.