Effects of Air Pollution on Disease Respiratory: Structures Lag

DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.612163   PDF   HTML   XML   4,436 Downloads   5,931 Views   Citations


Objective: Little evidence is available on the association between ozone exposure and health in Campo Grande, Brazil. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of surface ozone concentrations (O3) on respiratory morbidity in Campo Grande, Brazil during the period from January 1st, 2008 to December 31st, 2011. Methods: Daily data on respiratory hospital admissions, O3, mean temperature, and relative humidity were collected at Campo Grande, Brazil. A Poisson time series model was used to examine the effects of O3 on hospital admissions, while controlling for seasonality, long-term trend, temperature and relative humidity. A distributed lag non-linear function was used for O3, temperature, and relative humidity. We examined the effects of O3 on different age groups (0 - 4 years, 5 - 60 years and >60 years). Results: The ozone-respiratory morbidity relationship was non-linear, with a threshold at 13 ppb (less than 25% percentile of ozone distribution). We estimated the relative risk of hospital admission at 75% percentile of O3 distribution compared with associated with 25% of percentile of O3 distribution. The O3 effect on respiratory morbidity was delayed by two days and lasted for 4 days for all age groups except people aged 5 - 60 years. Children and the elderly were much more vulnerable to ozone pollution than people aged 5 - 60 years. Conclusions: This study suggests that ozone pollution has negative impacts on respiratory diseases in Campo Grande, Brazil. Children and the elderly were susceptible to O3 exposure. These findings should be used to develop policies for protecting people from O3 pollution.

Share and Cite:

de Souza, A. , Guo, Y. , Pavão, H. and Fernandes, W. (2014) Effects of Air Pollution on Disease Respiratory: Structures Lag. Health, 6, 1333-1339. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.612163.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] UNFPA—United Nations Population Fund (2012) State of World Population 2011.
[2] Braga, A.L.F., Conceição, G.M.S., Pereira, L.A.A., Kihi, H.S., Pereira, J.C.R., Andrade, M.F., et al. (1999) Air Pollution and Pediatric Respiratory Hospital Admissions in São Paulo, Brazil. Journal of Environmental Medicine, 2, 95-102.
[3] Braga, A.L.F., Saldiva, P.H.N., Pereira, L.A.A., Menezes, J.J.C., Conceição, G.M.S., Lin, C.A., et al. (2001) Health Effects of Air Pollution Exposure on Children and Adolescents in São Paulo, Brazil. Pediatric Pulmonology, 31, 106-113.
[4] Lin, A.C., Martins, M.A., Farhat, S.L., Pope III, C.A., Conceição, G.M.S., Anastácio, M.V., et al. (1999) Air Pollution and Respiratory Illness of Children in São Paulo, Brazil. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 13, 475-488.
[5] Atkinson, R.W., Anderson, H.R., Sunyer, J., Ayres, J., Baccini, M., Vonk, J.M., et al. (2001) Acute Effects of Particulate Air Pollution on Respiratory Admission: Results from APHEA 2 Project. Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 164, 1860-1866.
[6] Martins, L.C., Latorre, M.R.D.O., Cardoso, M.R.A., Gonçalves, F.L.T., Saldiva, P.H.N. and Braga, A.L.F. (2002) Poluição atmosférica e atendimentos por pneumonia e gripe em São Paulo, Brasil. Revista de Saúde Pública, 36, 88-94.
[7] Schwartz, J. and Marcus, A. (1990) Mortality and Air Pollution in London: A Time Series Analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 131, 185-194.
[8] Schwartz, J. and Dockery, D.W. (1992) Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Steubenville, Ohio. American Journal of Epidemiology, 135, 12-19.
[9] World Health Organization (2009) Health Risks of Ozone from Long-Range Trans-boundary Air Pollution. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen.
[10] World Health Organization (2005) Air Quality Guidelines. Global Update 2005. Particulate Matter, Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide. World Health Organization, Copenhagen.
[11] Schwartz, J. (2004) Air Pollution and Children’s Health. Pediatrics, 113, 1037-1043.
[12] Schwartz, J. (2000) Harvesting and Long Term Exposure Effects in the Relation between Air Pollution and Mortality. American Journal of Epidemiology, 151, 440-448.
[13] Koren, H.S. (1995) Associations between Criteria Air Pollutants and Asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103, 235-242.
[14] Fusco, D., Forastiere, F., Michelozzi, P., Spadea, T., Ostro, B., Arcà, M. and Perucci, C.A. (2001) Air Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Conditions in Rome, Italy. European Respiratory Journal, 17, 1143-1150.
[15] Galán, I., Tobías, A., Banegas, J.R. and Aránguez, E. (2003) Short-Term Effects of Air Pollution on Daily Asthma Emergency Room Admissions. European Respiratory Journal, 22, 802-808.
[16] Sant’Anna Neto, J.L. and da. Anunciação, V.S. (2003) Uma reflexão do espaço urbano da cidade de Campo Grande/ MS na perspectiva climática. Rev. Pantaneira, 3.
[17] Hardin, J. and Hilbe, J. (2011) Generalized Linear Models and Extensions. Stata Corporation, College Station.
[18] Gasparrini, A. andArmstrong, B. (2010) DLNM: Distributed Lag Non-Linear Models, R Package Version 1.2.4. The Comprehensive R Archive Network, Vienna.
[19] Gasparrini, A., Armstrong, B., Kenward, M.G. (2010) Distributed Lag Non-Linear Models. Statistics in Medicine, 29, 2224-2234.
[20] Bell, M.L., Dominici, F. and Samet, J.M. (2005) A Meta-Analysis of Time-Series Studies of Ozone and Mortality with Comparison to the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Epidemiology, 16, 436-445.
[21] Lefohn, A.S., Hazucha, M.J., Shadwick, D. and Adams, W.C. (2010) An Alternative Form and Level of the Human Health Ozone Standard. Inhalation Toxicology, 22, 999-1011.
[22] Künzli, N., Perez, L. and Rapp, R. (2010) Air Quality and Health. European Respiratory Society, Lausanne.
[23] Salvi, S. (2007) Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Children. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 8, 275-280.
[24] Sharma, G. and Goodwin, J. (2006) Effect of Aging on Respiratory System Physiology and Immunology. Journal of Clinical Interventions in Aging, 1, 253-260.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.