Vaginitis in Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Users


Objectives: This study aimed to assess clinical, microbial changes in IUD users and other contraceptive methods in referent to urban health centers in Hamadan city, Iran. Methods: Detailed history and gynecological examination were conducted on women (IUD users, n = 100) or other contraceptive methods (controls, n = 160) in the health centers. Results: Frequencies of the different vaginal pathogens, high indices of infection by bacterial vaginosis (12.0%) candida albicance (7.0%) and low indices of trichomoniasis (5.0%) were found in present study, but none of them in both groups was significant. Menorrhagia was more frequent among women with IUD than that among women without IUD (P < 0.05). A trend of erosion cervix and dysmenorrhea being more frequent among women with IUD was also found (P < 0.05). Conclusions: IUD is the safety in general; however, an increase occurred in the frequency of vaginitis.

Share and Cite:

Shobeiri, F. and Nazari, M. (2014) Vaginitis in Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Users. Health, 6, 1218-1223. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.611149.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Steenland, M.W., Zapata, L.B., Brahmi, D., Marchbanks, P.A. and Curtis, K.M. (2013) Appropriate Follow Up to Detect Potential Adverse Events after Initiation of Select Contraceptive Methods: A Systematic Review. Contraception, 87, 611-624.
[2] Donders, G.G., Berger, J., Heuninckx, H., Bellen, G. and Cornelis, A. (2011) Vaginal Flora Changes on Pap Smears after Insertion of Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine Device. Contraception, 83, 352-356.
[3] Agarwal, K., Sharma, U. and Acharya, V. (2004) Microbial and Cytopathological Study of Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Users. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 58, 394-399.
[4] Ferraz do Lago, R., Simões, J.A., Bahamondes, L., Camargo, R.P., Perrotti, M. and Monterio, I. (2003) Follow-Up of Users of Intrauterine Device with and without Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Cervi-covaginal Infections. Contraception, 68, 105-109.
[5] Meirik, O. (2007) Intrauterine Devices—Upper and Lower Genital Tract Infections. Contraception, 75, S41-S47.
[6] Lessard, T., Simões, J.A., Discacciati, M.G., Hidalgo, M. and Bahamondes, L. (2008) Cytological Evaluation and Investigation of the Vaginal Flora of Long-Term Users of the Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System (LNG-IUS). Contraception, 77, 30-33.
[7] Watcharotone, W., Sirimai, K., Kiriwat, O., et al. (2004) Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis in Thai Women Attending the Family Planning Clinic, Siriraj Hospital. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 87, 1419-1424.
[8] Ocak, S., Cetin, M., Hakverdi, S., Dolapcioglu, K., Gungoren, A. and Hakverdi, A.U. (2007) Effects of Intrauterine Device and Oral Contraceptive on Vaginal Flora and Epithelium. Saudi Medical Journal, 28, 727-731.
[9] Neale, R., Knight, I. and Keane, F. (2009) Do Users of the Intrauterine System (Mirena) Have Different Genital Symptoms and Vaginal Flora than Users of the Intrauterine Contraceptive Device? International Journal of STD & AIDS, 20, 423-424.
[10] Tosun, I., Aydin, F., Kaklikkaya, N. and Yazici, Y. (2003) Frequency of Bacterial Vaginosis among Women Attending for Intrauterine Device Insertion at an Inner-City Family Planning Clinic. European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, 8, 135-138.
[11] McClelland, R.S., Sangare, L., Hassan, W.M., et al. (2007) Infection with Trichomonas vaginalis Increases the Risk of HIV-1 Acquisition. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 195, 698-702.
[12] Auler, M.E., Morreira, D., Rodrigues, F.F., et al. (2010) Biofilm Formation on Intrauterine Devices in Patients with Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Medical Mycology, 48, 211-216.
[13] Sönmez Tamer, G., Keçeli Ozcan, S., Yücesoy, G. and Gacar, G. (2009) The Relation between Trichomoniasis and Contraceptive Methods. Türkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi, 33, 266-269.
[14] Nasir, J.A., Najmi, J., Tahir, F., Asghar, M.N. and Iqbal, J. (2005) Trichomonas vaginalis in Vaginal Smears of Women Using Intrauterine Contraceptive Device. Pakistan Journal of Medical Research, 44, 114-116.
[15] Mahdi, N.K., Gany, H. and Sharief, M. (2001) Infection Rate of Trichomonas vaginalis According to Contraceptive Methods. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 7, 918-924.
[16] Shobeiri, F. and Nazari, M. (2006) A Prospective Study of Genital Infections in Hamadan-Iran. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 37, 174-177.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.