Relevance of AEM and TEM to Detect the Groundwater Aquifer at Faiyum Oasis Area, Faiyum, Egypt


This study investigates the groundwater aquifer located in Fayuim oasis. In this study, two of the electromagnetic measurement methods have been used in determining the hydrological situation in the Fayoum oasis. The first is airborne electromagnetic (AEM) which, sometimes is referred to as Helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) and the second is ground Time-domain Electromagnetic method (TEM). The subsurface consists of four geoelectrical layers with a rough slope towards the center. The third and the fourth layers in the succession are suggested to be the two-groundwater aquifers. The third layer saturates with fresh water overlying saline water which exists in the bottom of the second one. It is worth mentioning that the depth of the fresh water surface undulates between the surface level in two lakes in the study area and 57 meters below the ground, whereas the thickness of the fresh water aquifer varies from 13 to 36 meters. The depth of the saline water surface undulates between 59 and 81 meters below the ground. In general, airborne electromagnetic surveying has the advantage of fast resistivity mapping with high lateral resolution. Groundbased geophysical surveys are often more accurate, but they are definitely slower than airborne surveys. It depends on targets of interest, time, budget, and manpower available by the method or the combination of methods that will be chosen. A combination of different methods is useful to obtain a detailed understanding of the subsurface resistivity distribution.

Share and Cite:

Basheer, A. , Taha, A. , El-Kotb, A. , Abdalla, F. and Elkhateeb, S. (2014) Relevance of AEM and TEM to Detect the Groundwater Aquifer at Faiyum Oasis Area, Faiyum, Egypt. International Journal of Geosciences, 5, 611-621. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2014.56056.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Said, R. (1961) Tectonic Framework and Its Influence on Distribution of Forminifera. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 45, 198-218.
[2] Tamer, A., El-Shazly, M. and Shata, A. (1975) Geology of the Fayum-Beni Suef Region: Part II Geomorphology. Desert Institute Bulletin, 25, 17-25.
[3] Tamer, A., El-Shazly, M. and Shata, A. (1975) Geology of the Fayum-Beni Suef Region: Part II Stratigraphy. Desert Institute Bulletin, 25, 27-45.
[4] Siemon, B. (2009) Levelling of Frequency-Domain Helicopter-Borne Electromagnetic Data. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 67, 206-218.
[5] Palacky, G.J. and West, G.F. (1991) Airborne Electromagnetic Methods. In: Nabighian, M.N., Ed., Electromagnetic Methods in Applied Geophysics, Volume 2 of Investigations in Geophysics No. 3, Society of Exploration Geophysics, Chapter 10, Springer, The Netherlands, 811-879.
[6] Sengpiel, K.P. and Siemon, B. (1998) Examples of 1D Inversion of Multifrequency AEM Data from 3D Resistivity Distributions. Exploration Geophysics Journal, 29, 133-141.
[7] Sengpiel, K.P. and Siemon, B. (2000) Advanced Inversion Methods for Airborne Electromagnetics. Geophysics, 66, 1983-1992.
[8] Nabighian, M.N. (1979) Quasi-Static Response of a Conductive Half-Space. An Approximation Represntstion. Geophysics, 44, 1700-1705.
[9] Hoversten, G.M., Dey, A. and Morrison, H.F. (1982) Comparison of Five Least-Squares Inversion Techniques in Resistivity Sounding. Geophysical Prospecting, 30, 688-734.
[10] Fitterman, D.V. (1986) Transient Electromagnetic Sounding in the Michigan Basin for Groundwater Evaluation: Presented at National Water Assn. Conference-Surface and Borehole Geophysical Methods, Denver, 21 November 1987, 685-692.
[11] Fitterman, D.V. and Stewart, M.T. (1986) Transient Electromagnetic Sounding for Groundwater. Geophysics, 51, 995-1005.
[12] Valleau, N. (2000) HEM Data Processing—A Practical Overview. Exploration Geophysics, 31, 584-594.
[13] Siemon, B., Christiansen, A.V. and Auken, E. (2009) A Review of Helicopter-Borne Electromagnetic Methods for Groundwater Exploration. Near Surface Geophysics, 7, 629-646.
[14] Beard, L.P. (2000) Comparison of Methods for Estimating Earth Resistivity from Airborne Electromagnetic Measurements. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 45, 239-259.
[15] Siemon, B. (2001) Improved and New Resistivity-Depth Profiles for Helicopter Electromagnetic Data. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 38, 65-76.
[16] Fraser, D.C. (1978) Resistivity Mapping with an Airborne Multicoil Electromagnetic System. Geophysics, 43, 144-172.
[17] Sengpiel, K.P. (1983) Resistivity/Depth Mapping with Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Data. Geophysics, 48, 181-196.
[18] Sengpiel, K.P. (1990) Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Groundwater Exploration Using Airborne Electromagnetic Techniques. In: Fitterman, D.V., Ed., Developments and Application of Modern Electromagnetic Surveys, US Geolocical Survey Bulletin 1925, Washington DC, 149-154.
[19] Hodges, G. and Siemon, B. (2008) Comparative Analysis of One-Dimensional Inversions of Helicopter-Borne Frequency-Domain Electromagnetic Data. Proceeding on AEM2008—5th International Conference on Airborne Electromagnetics, Haikko Manor, 28-30 May 2008, 231-239.
[20] Stephan, Wendland, E. and Fix, G. (1991) Electromagnetic Modeling by Finite Element Methods France Proceeding. Academic Press, London.
[21] Soliman, M.M.M. (2005) Environmental and Geophysical Assessment of the Ground and Subsurface Water Resources of Ras El-Hekma Area, Northwestern Coast of Egypt. Ph.D., Geophysic, Faculty of Science, Ein Shams University, Cairo.
[22] TEMIXL XL Program V4 (1996) Temix V.4 User’s Manual, Interpex, 468 p.
[23] Won, I.J., Oren, A. and Funak, F. (2003) GEM-2A: A Programmable Broadband Helicopter-Towed Electromagnetic Sensor. Geophysics, 68, 1888-1895.

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.