The Experience of Work Engagement, Hardy Personality, Optimism and Subjective Well-Being among Nurses from China and Spain


Engaged nurses have a sense of energetic and effective connection with their work activities and they see themselves as fully capable of dealing with the demands of their job. To analyze the experience of work engagement, examining cross-national differences in Hardy Personality (HP), optimism and subjective well-being among nurses from China and Spain. Cross-cultural study with a sample with 154 nurses from Beijing (China) and 164 nurses from Madrid (Spain) who completed the Engagement, HP, Optimism and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) Scales. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlations, Student’s t-tests and hierarchical multiple regression. The personality characteristics in these countries are different, as are the variables that explain engagement. In both samples, the variable most closely associated with engagement is commitment. Optimism was another predictor, but subjective well-being was only a predictor for Spanish nurses. This study is a first approximation to understand the application of HP, optimism and subjective well-being as personal resources that affect the way in which nurses interact with their working environment and to improve engagement. Practical implications are discussed.

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Garrosa, E. , Ladstätter, F. , Moreno, B. , Gan, Y. and Carmona, I. (2014) The Experience of Work Engagement, Hardy Personality, Optimism and Subjective Well-Being among Nurses from China and Spain. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2, 106-109. doi: 10.4236/jss.2014.25021.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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