Relationship between Abdominal Strength Measured by a Newly Developed Device and Abdominal Muscle Thickness


Although measurement of abdominal strength is important for evaluating trunk myofunction, adequate devices for these measurements have not been developed. As a consequence, the relationships between abdominal strength and abdominal muscle thickness have also not been determined. This study aimed to develop a new device for measuring abdominal strength and to examine the relationship between abdominal muscle strength and thickness. The subjects in the study included 50 young males (age, 19.1 ± 0.32 years; height, 171.0 ± 6.55 cm; weight, 69.5 ± 12.15 kg). The measurement of abdominal flexion strength had high reliability with an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) >0.9. The thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle was measured under two conditions using an ultrasound imaging method; relaxation and strength exertion. Abdominal muscle thickness was significantly thicker during exertion than during relaxation. Abdominal flexion strength showed a significant correlation with muscle thickness during both relaxation (r = 0.69) and strength exertion (r = 0.71). No significant difference was found between these correlation coefficients. In conclusion, the values of abdominal strength determined by our newly-developed measuring device had high reliability, with abdominal flexion strength showing a relatively close relationship with the thickness of the rectus abdominis during strength exertion and relaxation.

Share and Cite:

Noguchi, T. and Demura, S. (2014) Relationship between Abdominal Strength Measured by a Newly Developed Device and Abdominal Muscle Thickness. Advances in Physical Education, 4, 70-76. doi: 10.4236/ape.2014.42010.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Akagi, R., Takai, Y., Kato, E., Fukuda, M., Wakahara, T., Ohta, M., Kanehisa, H., Kawakami, Y., & Fukunaga, T. (2009). Relationships between Muscle Strength and Indices of Muscle Cross-Sectional Area Determined during Maximal Voluntary Contraction in Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23, 1258-1262.
[2] Koblbauer, I. F., Lambrecht, Y., Van der Hulst, M. L., Neeter, C., Engelbert, R. H., Poolman, R. W., & Scholtes, V. A. (2011). Reliability of Maximal Isometric Knee Strength Testing with Modified Hand-Held Dynamometry in Patients Awaiting Total Knee Arthroplasty: Useful in Research and Individual Patient Settings? A Reliability Study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 12, 249.
[3] Koppenhaver, S. L., Hebert, J. J., Fritz, J. M., Parent, E. C., Teyhen, D. S., & Magel, J. S. (2009). Reliability of Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging of the Transversus Abdominis and Lumbar Multifidus Muscles. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 90, 87-94.
[4] Mannion, A. F., Pulkovski, N., Toma, V., & Sprott, H. (2008). Abdominal Muscle Size and Symmetry at Rest and during Abdominal Hollowing Exercises in Healthy Control Subjects. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 173-182.
[5] Michael, S., Erik, S., & Udo, S. (2010). Prometheus: Lernatlas der Anatomie (pp. 130-141). Tokyo: Igakusyoin.
[6] Miyamoto, K., Tanaka, S., Tanaka, A., Matsumura, S., Tanisawa, T., Moriyama, S., Nakatani, T., & Tanaka, S. (2007). Appropriation of Colorized Ultrasonographics, and Relationships between Muscle Thickness and Muscle Volume or Strength. Structure and Function, 6, 27-32.
[7] Ogawa, M., Mitsukawa, N., Bemben, M. G., & Abe, T. (2012). Ultrasound Assessment of Adductor muscle Size Using Muscle Thickness of the Thigh. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 21, 244-248.
[8] Noguchi, T., Demura, S., & Takahashi, K. (2013). Relationships between Sit-Ups and Abdominal Flexion Strength Tests and the Thickness of Each Abdominal Muscle. Advanced in Physical Education, 3, 84-88.
[9] Teyhen, D. S. (2006). Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging Symposium. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 36, A-1-A-17.
[10] Teyhen, D.S. (2007). Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging: The Roadmap Ahead. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 37, 431-433.
[11] Weits, T., Van der Beek, E. J., & Wedel, M. (1986). Comparison of Ultrasound and Skinfold Caliper Measurement of Subcutaneous Fat Tissue. International Journal of Obesity, 10, 161-168.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.