Share This Article:

Evaluation of 20 Macro and Trace Mineral Concentrations in Commercial Goat Milk Yogurt and Its Cow Milk Counterpart

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:345KB) PP. 889-895
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.510098    5,450 Downloads   7,432 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Concentrations of 20 different minerals in commercial goat milk yogurt (CGY) and its cow milk yogurt (CCY) counterpart were evaluated in reference to goat milk yogurt manufactured from Fort Valley State University (FVGY), Fort Valley, GA, USA. Three different lots of CGY and CCY each were purchased from local retail stores at Warner Robins, GA, and 3 batches of FVGY were made using goat milk from the University milking herd. All 3 types of experimental yogurts were stored at 4°C refrigerator for 4 weeks. Twenty major and trace minerals were analyzed by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emissions Spectrometer (Thermo Jarrel Ash Enviro 36, Worchester, MA), using argon as the carrier gas and the EPA method 6010. Total solids (TS) content (%) of FVGY, CGY and CCY products were 11.03, 13.1 and 11.3, respectively, indicating CGY had higher TS than the CCY and FVGY yogurt. Respective mean mineral concentrations (ppm, wet basis) of FVGY, CGY and CCY were: Ca 1057, 1162, 1160; P 838, 974, 929; K 1327, 1717, 1208; Mg 102, 133, 113; Na 545, 449, 475; Fe 4.28, 3.33, 2.11; Mn 0.24, 0.19, 0.13; Cu 10.5, 9.85, 7.22; Zn 17.5, 11.7, 11.8. Levels of all macro minerals except potassium were higher in commercial goat and cow yogurts than FVGY, which may be due to the higher TS contents. FVGY had higher Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn than both commercial products. The heavy metal (Pb, Cd and Ni) contents (ppm) appeared to be normal range, while Al contents of FVGY, CGY and CCY were 11.9, 8.66 and 7.65, respectively, which were higher than those of Pb, Cd and Ni. Both commercial products contained higher major mineral contents than the university yogurt, which might be attributable to the differences in diet, breed, and stage of lactation of milking animals, as well as the tapioca additive used in the commercial products.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Hernandez, K. and Park, Y. (2014) Evaluation of 20 Macro and Trace Mineral Concentrations in Commercial Goat Milk Yogurt and Its Cow Milk Counterpart. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 889-895. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.510098.

References

[1] Park, Y.W. (1994) Basic Nutrient and Mineral Composition of Commercial Goat Milk Yogurt Produced in the US. Small Ruminant Research, 13, 63-70.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(94)90032-9
[2] Hekmat, S. and McMahon, D. (1997) Manufacture and Quality of Iron Fortified Yoghurt. Journal of Dairy Science, 80, 3114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76282-9
[3] Güler, Z., Sanal, H. and Park, Y.W. (2011) Non-essential Element Concentrations of Concentrated (Torba) Yoghurts Made from Different Types of Milk and Wheys. Food Additives and Contaminants, 4, 275-281.
[4] Baek, Y.J. and Lee, B.H. (2009) Probiotics and Prebiotics as Bioactive Components in Dairy Products. In: Park, Y.W., Ed., Bioactive Components in Milk and Dairy Products, Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, Iowa, 287-310.
[5] Haenlein, G.F.W. and Caccese, R. (1984) Goat Milk versus Cow Milk. In: Haenlein, G.F.W. and Ace, D.L., Eds., Extension Goat Handbook, USDA Publications, Washington DC, 1.
[6] Park, Y.W. (1991) Relative Buffering Capacity of Goat Milk, Cow Milk, Soy-Based Infant Formulas, and Commercial Non-Prescription Antiacid Drugs. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3326.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78520-2
[7] Kroger, M. (1973) Controlling the Quality of Yogurt. Dairy and Ice Cream Field, 156, 38-39.
[8] Park, Y.W. (2007) Rheological Characteristics of Goat Milk and Sheep Milk. Small Ruminant Research, 68, 73-87.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.09.015
[9] Park, Y.W. and Guo, M.R. (2006) Goat Milk Products: Processing Technology, Types and Consumption Trends. In: Park, Y.W. and Haenlein, G.F.W., Eds., Handbook of Milk of Non-Bovine Mammals, Blackwell Publishers, Ames, Iowa and Oxford, 59-106.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470999738.ch4
[10] Park, Y.W. and Chukwu, H.I. (1988) Macro-Mineral Concentrations in Milk of Two Goat Breeds at Different Stages of Lactation. Small Ruminant Research, 1, 157-166.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(88)90032-6
[11] Park, Y.W. (2000) Comparison of Mineral and Cholesterol Composition of Different Commercial Goat Milk Products Manufactured in USA. Small Ruminant Research, 37, 115-124.
[12] AOAC (1996) Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington DC.
[13] Richardson, G.H. (1985) Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products. 15th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington DC, 347.
[14] SAS (1990) User’s Guide. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary.
[15] Steel, R.G.D. and Torrie, J.J. (1960) Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw-Hill Co., Inc., New York, 277.
[16] Underwood, E.J. (1977) Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition. 4th Edition, Academic Press, New York, 173.
[17] Park, Y.W. (1990) Nutrient Profiles of Commercial Goat Milk Cheeses Manufactured in the United States. Journal of Dairy Science, 73, 3059-3067.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)78993-X

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.