Associations of High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Framingham Cardiovascular Risk with Diabetic Retinopathy in African Type 2 Diabetics

DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.44026   PDF   HTML     2,978 Downloads   4,086 Views   Citations


Objectives: To assess the associations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and Framingham cardiovascular (CVD) with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: A cross-sectional study of random sample of 200 T2DM Central Africans. Sociobiographical, laboratory and eye examination main outcome measures were investigated using Tertiles of HDL-C (stratification = lowest < 40 mg/dL, normal or interdemiate = 40 - 74.9 mg/dL, highest ≥ 75 mg/dL) and Framingham risk stratification (<10% and ≥10%) by logistic regression models. Results: Out of 200 T2DM patients, 120 (35.5%) had DR and out of DR patients, 116 (n = 96.7%) had VD. There was a significant U- shaped relationship between DR rates and HDL-C stratification. In the normal HDL-C group, elevated 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 10-year Framingham risk > 10% were the significant independent determinants for DR. In the highest HDL-C group, smoking status and 10-year Framingham risk ≥ 10% were the significantly independent determinants for DR. In 10-year Framingham risk ≥ 10% group, smoking status, insulin resistance and increasing levels of HDL-C were the significantly independent determinants for DR. Conclusion: DR and VD remain a public health problem in T2DM Central Africans. Some Central Africans with DR and VD appear to have higher HDL-C than T2DM Central Africans without DR and VD. HDL-C in T2DM patients with DR, may be tightly controlled by genetic factors (black Bantu ethnicity) than the other lipoproteins as reported among Indians, African-Americans, and Japanese individuals. The most preventable environmental risk factors for DR were smoking status, global cardiovascular disease risk, insulin resistance and oxidative stress.

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Longo-Mbenza, B. , Muaka, M. , Gombet, T. , Phemba, I. , Cook, S. and Mengome, E. (2014) Associations of High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Framingham Cardiovascular Risk with Diabetic Retinopathy in African Type 2 Diabetics. World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, 4, 179-188. doi: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.44026.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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