Influence of Alternating and Static Magnetic Fields on Drug Release from Hybrid Hydrogels Containing Magnetic Nanoparticles


Hybrid hydrogels of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), containing two different amounts of CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles (50% and 70% in relation to the quantity of the polymer) as crosslinkers, were prepared. The hybrid hydrogels were chemically and morphologically characterized and their viscoelastic properties and swelling degrees were analyzed. The hydrogels were tested as controlled drug delivery systems by applying one static and two different alternating magnetic fields. The application of the two alternating magnetic fields (AMF) to the hybrid hydrogels induced a higher release of methylene blue (MB), used as a model drug, than without the application of any magnetic field, especially at low frequency (4 Hz) and high magnetic intensity (0.5 T). In contrast, when the hybrid hydrogels were exposed to a static magnetic field (SMF) the release of MB was slowed down. Furthermore the two different amounts of magnetic nanoparticles induce different responses to the magnetic field. The greater number of nanoparticles in the CMC-NP-70 hydrogel leads to the formation of some NPs clusters limiting the drug release; conversely, the CMC-NP-50 hydrogel, containing a lower amount of nanoparticles, shows a higher release of MB vs. time. In conclusion, we were able to get a potential system for modulation of the drug delivery: the release behaviour of hybrid hydrogels can be modulated by applying alternating and static magnetic fields cyclically. A possible explanation for the release mechanism is about the structural modification of the polymeric chains that occurs when the hybrid hydrogels are exposed to the magnetic fields.

Share and Cite:

Uva, M. , Pasqui, D. , Mencuccini, L. , Fedi, S. and Barbucci, R. (2014) Influence of Alternating and Static Magnetic Fields on Drug Release from Hybrid Hydrogels Containing Magnetic Nanoparticles. Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, 5, 116-127. doi: 10.4236/jbnb.2014.52014.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] De Paoli, V.M., De Paoli, L.S.H., Spinu, L., Ingber, B., Rosenzweig, Z. and Rosenzweig, N. (2006) Effect of Oscillating Magnetic Fields on the Release Properties of Magnetic Collagen Gels. Langmuir, 22, 5894-5899.
[2] Yi, J.Z. and Zhang, L.M. (2007) Biodegradable Blend Films Based on Two Polysaccharide Derivatives and Their Use as Ibuprofen-Releasing Matrices. Journal of Applied. Polymer Science, 103, 3553-3559.
[3] Satarkar, N.S. and Hilt, J.Z. (2008) Nanocomposite Hydrogels as Remote Controlled Drug Delivery Systems. Acta Biomateralia, 4, 11-16.
[4] Meenach, S.A., Hilt, J.Z. and Anderson, K.W. (2010) Poly(ethylene glycol)-Based Magnetic Hydrogel Nanocomposites for Hyperthermia Cancer Therapy. Acta Biomaterialia, 6, 1039-1046.
[5] Liu, H., Wang, C., Gao, Q., Chen, J., Ren, B., Liu, X. and Tong, Z. (2009) Facile Fabrication of Well-Defined Hydrogel Beads with Magnetic Nanocomposite Shells. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 376, 92-98.
[6] Gaihre, B., Seob Khil, M., Rae Lee, D. and Yong Kim, H. (2009) Gelatin-Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Carrier System: Drug Loading and in Vitro Drug Release Study. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 365, 180-189.
[7] Meenach, S.A., Otu, C.G., Anderson, K.W. and Hilt, Z. (2012) Controlled Synergistic Delivery of Paclitaxel and Heat from Poly(β-amino Ester)/Iron Oxide-Based Hydrogel Nanocomposites. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 427, 177-184.
[8] Galicia, J.A., Cousin, F., Dubois, E., Sandre, O., Cabuil, V. and Perzynski, R. (2009) Static and Dynamic Structural Probing of Swollen Polyacrylamide Ferrogels. Soft Matter, 5, 2614-2624.
[9] Barbucci, R., Pasqui, D., Giani G., De Cagna, M., Fini, M., Giardino, R. and Atrei, A. (2011) A Novel Strategy for Engineering Hydrogels with Ferromagneticnanoparticles as Crosslinkers of the Polymer Chains. Potential Applications as a Targeted Drug Delivery System. Soft Matter, 7, 5558-5565.
[10] Barbucci, R., Giani, G., Fedi, S., Bottari, S. and Casolaro, M. (2012) Biohydrogels with Magnetic Nanoparticles as Crosslinker: Characteristics and Potential Use for Controlled Antitumor Drug-Delivery. Acta Biomaterialia, 8, 4244-4252.
[11] Giani, G., Fedi, S. and Barbucci, R. (2012) Hybrid Magnetic Hydrogel: A Potential System for Controlled Drug Delivery by Means of Alternating Magnetic Fields. Polymers, 4, 1157-1169.
[12] Pasqui, D., De Cagna, M. and Barbucci, R. (2012) Polysaccharide-Based Hydrogels: The Key Role of Water in Affecting Mechanical Properties. Polymers, 4, 1517-1534.
[13] Tang, Y.F., Du, Y.M., Hu, X.W., Shi, X.W. and Kennedy, J.F. (2007) Rheological Characterisation of a Novel Thermosensitive Chitosan/Poly(vinyl alcohol) Blend Hydrogel. Carbohydrate Polymers, 67, 491-499.
[14] Huang, L.Y. and Yang, M.C. (2007) Behaviors of Controlled Drug Release of Magnetic-Gelatin Hydrogel Coated Stainless Steel for Drug-Eluting-Stents Application. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 310, 2874-2876.
[15] Liu, T.Y., Hu, S.H., Liu, K.H., Liu, D.M. and Chen, S.Y. (2006) Preparation and Characterization of Smart Magnetic Hydrogels and Its Use for Drug Release. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 304, e397-e399.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.