Share This Article:

Characteristics of Lactation Curves of the Kenya Alpine Dairy Goats in Smallholder Farms

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:330KB) PP. 92-102
DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2014.42013    4,525 Downloads   7,341 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Lactation curves are a graphical representation of the milk production profile of a doe from parturition to drying up. Their shape provides information about the productivity of the doe and offers a means of explaining features of the milk production patterns of each animal. A total of 2732 daily morning milk records from 610 does of the Kenyan Alpine dairy goats’ genetic groups (50% Alpine, 75% Alpine, 87.5% Alpine and > 87.5% Alpine) and local goats (0% Alpine) kept in small-holder farms were used to evaluate factors affecting milk yield and to examine the characteristics of their lactation curve. A nonlinear mixed model was used to fit the lactation curves to all does simultaneously. The Wood’s (1967) equation was fitted within each genetic group and parity to generate genetic group and parity lactation curves. The mean lactation period was 218 ± 46 days and the model accounted for 88% of the total variation. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between genetic groups were observed in their lactation curve parameters. The estimated week of peak milk yield post kidding was: 2, 4, 6, 6 and 8 weeks; and peak yield was 0.32, 0.75, 0.91, 0.99 and 1.02 Kg/day, for 0% Alpine, 50% Alpine, 75% Alpine, 87.5% Alpine and >87.5% Alpine genetic groups respectively. Genetic group did not significantly affect rate of increase to peak yield (P > 0.05) and rate of decline from peak (P > 0.05) or persistency (P > 0.05). Parity significantly affected rate of increase to peak, rate of decrease from peak and persistency (P < 0.01). The month of kidding significantly affected the rate of increase to peak (P < 0.05) and persistency, but not rate of decrease from peak. The synchronization of breeding with season has a practical implication for the maximization of lactation yield when considered in combination with other biological and economic constraints. The superior production of the pedigree animals supports the development of composite breed types in Kenya to take advantage of the fitness of indigenous breeds, the productivity of imported dairy breeds, heterosis, and the potential for selection within the composite to improve productivity in later generations.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Marete, A. , Mosi, R. , Amimo, J. and Jung’a, J. (2014) Characteristics of Lactation Curves of the Kenya Alpine Dairy Goats in Smallholder Farms. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 4, 92-102. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2014.42013.

References

[1] Wood, P.D.P. (1967) Algebraic Models of the Lactation Curves for Milk, Fat and Protein Production with Estimates of Seasonal Variation. Animal Production, 22, 35.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000335610003539X
[2] Falagán, A., González, C., Pérez, S.J., Goicoechea, A. and Romero, C. (1991) Composition and Production Curve in the Goat’s Milk. Chemie, Mikrobiologie, Technologie der Lebensmittel, 13, 76-82.
[3] Fernández, C., Sánchez, A. and Garcés, A. (2002) Modelling the Lactation Curve for Test-Day Milk Yield in Murciano-Granadina Goats. Small Ruminant Research, 46, 29-41.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(02)00179-7
[4] Montaldo, H., Almanza, A. and Juiirez, A. (1995) Genotype, Age and Season Effects on Lactation Curve Shape in Goats. Journal Small Ruminant Research, 24, 195-202.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(96)00946-7
[5] Muhammad, A., Philip, J., Peter, R., Muhammad, S., Muhammad, A. and Maroon, E. (2009) Factors Affecting the Shape of the Lactation Curve in Nile-Ravi Buffaloes in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 9, 201-220.
[6] Ruvuna, F., Kogi, J.K., Mkuu, S.M. and Taylor J.F. (1995) Lactation Curves among Crosses of Galla and East African with Toggenburg and Anglo Nubian Goat. Small Ruminant Research, 16, 1-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(94)00043-7
[7] Bondoc, O.C., Smith, C. and Gibson, J. (1989) A Review of Breeding Strategies for Genetic Improvement of Dairy Cattle in Developing Countries. Animal Breeding, 57, 819-829.
[8] Rege, J.E.O. (1991) Genetic Analysis of Reproduction and Productive Performance of Cattle in Kenya. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, 108, 412-423.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0388.1991.tb00203.x
[9] Smith, L.A., Cassell, B. and Pearson, R.E. (1988) The Effect of Inbreeding on the Lifetime Performance of Dairy Cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 81, 2729-2737.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75830-8
[10] Ojango, J.M.K., Ducrocq, V. and Pollott, G.E (2005) Short Communication Survival Analysis of Factors Affecting Culling Early in the Productive Life of Holstein-Friesian Cattle in Kenya.
[11] Devendra, C. and McLeroy, G.B. (1982) Goat and Sheep Production in the Tropics. Longman, Harlow, Essex, UK.
[12] Akpa, G.N., Asiribo, O., Oni, O.O. and Alawa, J.P. (2001) The Influence of Non-Genetic Factors on the Shape of Lactation Curves in Red Sokoto Goats. Animal Science, 72, 233-239.
[13] Gipson, T.A. and Grossman, M. (1990) Lactation Curves in Dairy Goats: A Review. Small Ruminant Research, 3, 383.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(90)90019-3
[14] Odenya, W.O. (1984) Milk Production Yields from Toggenburg and Black Bedouin Goats under Medium Rainfall Zone. Ministry of Livestock Development, Kenya: Sheep and Goats Development Project, Technical Note No. 21, 5.
[15] Andonov, S., ?deg?rd, J., Boman, I.A., Svendsen, M., Holme, I.J., Adn?y, T., et al. (2007) Validation of Test-Day Models for Genetic Evaluation of Dairy Goats in Norway. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 4863-4871.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-626
[16] Gipson, T.A. (2002) Preliminary Observations: Inbreeding in Dairy Goats and Its Effects on Milk Production. In: Proceedings of 17th Ann. Goat Field Day, Langston, 51-56.
[17] Tekerli, M., Akinci, Z., Dogan, I. and Akcan, A. (2000) Factors Affecting the Shape of Lactation Curves of Holstein Cows from the Balikesir Province of Turkey. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 1381-1386.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)75006-5
[18] Catillo, G., Macciotta, N.P.P., Carretta, A. and Cappio-Borlino, A. (2002) Effects of Age and Calving Season on Lactation Curves of Milk Production Traits in Italian Water Buffaloes. Journal of Dairy Science, 85, 1298-1306.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74194-5
[19] Wahome, R.G. (1987) Milk Production Potential of Free Ranging Small East African Goats. Thesis, University of Nairobi, Nairobi.
[20] Wahome, R.G., Carles, A.B. and Schewartz, H.J. (1994) An Analysis of Variation of Lactation Curves of Small East African Goats. Small Ruminant Research, 15, 1-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(94)90053-1
[21] Morand-Fehr, P. and Sauvant, D. (1978) Nutrition and Optimum Performance of Dairy Goats. Livestock Production Science, 5, 203-212.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(78)90046-5
[22] Osinowo, O.A. and Abubakar, B.Y. (1989) Appropriate Breeding Strategies for Small Ruminant Production in West and Central Africa. In: Adeniji, K.O., Ed., Proceedings of the Workshop on the Improvement of Small Ruminants in West and Central Africa, Ibadan, 21-25 November 1988, 71-84.
[23] Lloyd, D.H. (1963) The Milk Production of Merino Ewes at Pasture. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 14, 824-838.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AR9630824
[24] Hassan, H.A. (1995) Effect of Crossing and Environmental Factors on Production and Some Constituents of Milk in Ossimi and Saidi Sheep and Their Crosses with Chios. Small Ruminant Research, 18, 165-172.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(95)00684-D
[25] Awgichew, K., Yacob, Y. and Fletcher, I. (1991) Productivity of Pure-Bred Adal and Quarter Bred Saanen 5 Adal goats in Ethiopia. Dairy Science Abstracts, 53, 4951.
[26] Egwu, G.O., Onyeyili, P.A., Chibuzo, G.A. and Ameh, J.A. (1995) Improved Productivity of Goats and Utilization of Goat Milk in Nigeria. Small Ruminant Research, 16, 195-201.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(95)00630-4
[27] Mukundan, G. and Bhat, P.N. (1983) Lactation Curve in Malabari Goats and Their Saanen Halfbreds. Indian Journal of Animal Science, 53, 666-669.
[28] Sakul, H. and Boylan, W.J. (1992) Lactation Curves for Several US Sheep Breeds. Animal Production, 54, 229-233.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100036849
[29] Devendra, C. (1980) Milk Production in Goats Compared to Buffalo and Cattle in Humid Tropics. Journal of Dairy Science, 63, 1755-1767.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(80)83135-3
[30] Gipson, T.A. and Grossman, M. (1989) Diphasic Analysis of Lactation Curves in Dairy Goats. Journal of Dairy Science, 72, 1035-1044.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(89)79199-2
[31] Dijkstra, J., France, J., Dhanoa, M.S., Maas, J.A., Hanigan, M.D., Rook, A.J. and Beever, D.E. (1997) A Model to Describe Growth Patterns of the Mammary Gland during Pregnancy and Lactation. Journal of Dairy Science, 80, 2340-2354.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76185-X
[32] Ehoche, O.W. and Buvanendran, V. (1983) Yield and Composition of Milk and Preweaning Growth Rate of Red Sokoto Goats in Nigeria. World Review of Animal Production, 19, 19-24.
[33] Mavrogenis, A.P., Constantinou, A. and Louca, A. (1984) Environmental and Genetic Causes of Variation in Production Traits of Damascus Goats. 1. Pre-Weaning and Post-Weaning Growth. Animal Production, 38, 91-97.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100041398
[34] Mourad, M. (1993) Reproductive Performance of Alpine and Zaraibi Goats and Growth of Their First Cross in Egypt. Small Ruminant Research, 12, 379-384.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(93)90073-Q
[35] Madrid-Bury, N., Gonzalez-Stagnara, C. and Fiqueron, L. (1982) Milk Production of Native Goats in a Tropical Zone. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Goat Production and Diseases, Tucson, 10-15 January 1982, 84.
[36] Guo, Z. and Swalve, H. (1995) Modeling of the Lactation Curve as a Sub-Model in the Evaluation of Test-Day Records. Proceedings of the Interbull Annual Meeting, Prague, 7-8 September 1995, Bulletin no. 11. Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, SLU, Uppsala.
[37] Moioli, B., Astruc, J.M. and Sanna, S. (2000) Successful Establishment of Small Ruminant Recording Systems in the Mediterranean Countries. In: Development of Successful Animal Recording Systems for Transition and Developing Countries. Proceedings of the FAO/ICAR Seminar, Interlaken, 27 May 2002, 155.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.