Share This Article:

Wild Fruits Traditionally Gathered by the Malinke Ethnic Group in the Edge of Niokolo Koba Park (Senegal)

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:3076KB) PP. 1306-1317
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.59144    3,814 Downloads   5,329 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

In rural areas, the local population draws from several forest resources needed for survival including food. Then it is a granary for these native people. Unfortunately, useful wild plants are highly threatened, especially by various human activities. Because of this situation we started with open semi-structured interviews to identify wild fruit plants, their consumed organs and their seasonality in the rural community of Tomboronkoto. Tomboronkoto is located at the edge of the Niokolo-Koba National park (Senegal) and is mainly inhabited by Malinke. We identified 45 wild fruit species belonging to 38 genera that can be divided in 28 botanical families. The more diversified are successively the Anacardiaceae, Tiliaceae, Apocynaceae and Caesalpiniaceae. More than half of the plants inventoried are trees (53%). We can distinguish three categories of fruits depending on their Fidelity Level (FL) that informs us about their popularity: the well-known or common fruits, moderately known fruits and little known fruits. A dozen wild fruits happen to be greatly appreciated with very high fidelity level (100% to 84%). The fruits of Saba senegalensis, Adansonia digitata, Parkia biglobosa, Tamarindus indica and Vitellaria paradoxa are the most variously used because they are appreciated being fresh or cooked. Only fruits of Ficussur are available all year long. The large majority of the most consumed fruits are available between the end of the hot dry season until the middle of the rainy season. This period coincides with the period where crops from the previous rainy season are depleted and the new crops are not yet ripe. Thus, these wild fruits would greatly contribute to food security in this area during the lean period.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Gueye, M. , Ayessou, N. , Koma, S. , Diop, S. , Elie Akpo, L. and Samb, P. (2014) Wild Fruits Traditionally Gathered by the Malinke Ethnic Group in the Edge of Niokolo Koba Park (Senegal). American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 1306-1317. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.59144.

References

[1] Guèye, M. and Diouf, M. (2007) Traditional Leafy Vegetables in Senegal: Diversity and Medicinal Uses. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medecine (AJTCAM), 4, 469-475.
[2] Ambé, G.-A. (2001) Les fruitiers sauvages comestibles des savanes guinéennes de la Côte d’Ivoire: état de la connaissance par une population locale, les Malinké. Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment, 5, 43-58.
[3] Malaisse, F. (1997) Se nourrir en forêtclaireafricaine. Approche écologique et nutritionnelle. Gembloux, Belgique: Presses agronomiques de Gembloux, CTA, Wageningen, Pays-Bas, 384.
[4] Vivien, J. and Faure, J.J. (1996) Fruitiers sauvages d’Afrique-Espèces du Cameroun. CTA, Wageningen, Pays-Bas, 416.
[5] Baumer, M. (1995) Arbres, arbustes et arbrisseaux nourriciers en Afriqueoccidentale. Enda Tiers-Monde, Dakar, 260.
[6] PAM (Programme Alimentaire Mondial) (2012) Evaluation de la sécuritéalimentairedans les zones à risque. Note de Synthèse, 14.
[7] Ba, A.T. and Noba, K. (2001) Flore et biodiversité végétale au Sénégal. Sécheresse, 12, 149-155.
[8] Adam, J.G. (1966) Composition floristique des principaux types de végétation du Sénégal. Journal of West African Science Association, 11, 81-97.
[9] Traore, S.A. (1997) Analyse de la flore ligneuse et de la végétation de la zone de Simenti (Parc national du Niokolo Koba), Sénégal oriental. Thèse de 3e cycle, Faculté des Sciences, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, 136.
[10] Ayessou, C.N., Ndiaye, C., Cissé, M., Guèye, M. and Sakho M. (2011) Nutritional Contribution of Some Senegalese Forest Fruits Running across Soudano-Sahelian Zone. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2, 606-612.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2011.26085
[11] Ayessou, N.C., Guèye, M., Dioh, E., Konteye, M., Cissé, M. and Dornier, M. (2009) Composition nutritive etapporténergétique du fruit de Maeruapseudopetalosa (Gil et Gil-Ben) DeWolf (Capparidaceae), aliment de soudure au Sénégal. Fruits, 64,147-156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/fruits/2009010
[12] Danthu, P., Soloviev, P., Totté, A., Tine, E., Ayessou, N., Gaye, A. and Niang, T. (2001) Caractères physico-chimiques et organoleptiques comparés de jujubes sauvages et des fruits de la variété Golaintroduite au Sénégal. Fruits, 57, 173-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/fruits:2002016
[13] Grenand, P., Moretti, C., Jacquemin, H. and Prévost, M.F. (2004) Pharmacopées traditionnelles en Guyane. Ed. IRD Paris, France.
[14] Cunningham, A.B. (2002) Applied Ethnobotany: People, Wild Plant Use and Conservation. People and Plants Conservation Manual. Earthscan, 300.
[15] Martin, G.J. (2004) Ethnobotany. A Method Manual. Earthscan Publications, London.
[16] Berhaut, J. (1967) Flore du Sénégal plus complète avec les forêts humides de la Casamance. Ed. ClairAfrique, 485.
[17] Hawthorne, W. and Jongkind, C. (2006) Woody Plants of Western African Forests: A Guide to the Forest Trees, Shrubs and Lianes from Senegal to Ghana. Ed. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 1023.
[18] Arbonnier (2000) Arbres, Arbustes et Lianes des Zones Sèches d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Ed. CIRAD-MNHN-UICN, Paris.
[19] Begossi, A. (1996) Use of Ecological Methods in Ethnobotany: Diversity Indices. Ecological Methods in ethnobotany, 50, 280-289.
[20] Trotter, R.T. and Logan, M.H. (1986) Informant Consensus: A New Approach for Identifying Potentially Effective méDicinal Plants. Ed. Bedfore Hills, New York, 91-112.
[21] Guèye, M. (2012) Etude ethnobotanique chez les Malinké de la Communautérurale de Tomboronkoto (Région de Kédougou) etvalorisation des collections historiques de l’Herbier de l’Institutfondamentald’Afrique noire (IFAN) Ch. A. DIOP/UCAD.Thèse de Doctoratd’étatès Sciences Naturelles, UCAD, 176.
[22] Thiombiano, D.N.E., Lamien, N., Dibong, D.S., Boussim, I.J. and Belem, B. (2012) Le rôle des espèces ligneuses dans la gestion de la soudure alimentaire au Burkina Faso. Sécheresse, 23, 86-93.
[23] Teklehaymanot, T. and Giday, M. (2010) Ethnobotanical Study of Wild Edible Plants of Kara and Kwego Semi-Pastoralist People in Lower Omo River Valley, Debub Omo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 6, 23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-6-23
[24] Ong, H.-C., Chua, S. and Milow, P. (2011) Traditional Knowledge of Edible Plants among the Temuan Villagers in Kampung Jeram Kedah, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Scientific Research and Essays, 6, 694-697.
[25] Katende, A.B., Ssegawa, P. and Bernie, A. (1999) Wild Food Plants and Mushrooms of Uganda. Technical Handbook No. 19, Ed. RELMA, 490.
[26] Maundu, P.M., Ngugi, G.W. and Kabuye, C.H.S. (1999) Traditional Food Plants of Kenya. Ed. Kenya Ressource Centre for indigenous Knowledge (KENRIK), National Muséum of Kenya, 270.
[27] Norman, D.W. and Dixon, J (1995) Sustainable Dryland Cropping in Relation to Soil Productivity. FAO Soils Bulletin 72. Food and Agriculture Organisation, United Nations. http://fao.org/docrep/V9926E/V9926E00.htm
[28] Gautier-Bréguin, D. (1992) Plantes de cueillette alimentaire dans le Sud du V-Baoulé en Côte d’Ivoire. Description, écologie, consommation et production. Boissiera, 46, 1-341.
[29] Diouf, M., Lô, C., Guèye, M. and Mbengue, N.B. (2007) Sélection participative de nouveaux cultivars de quatre (4) espèces de légumes feuilles (Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Amaranthus L. spp, Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP et Moringa oleifera Lam) au Sénégal. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition & Development (AJFAND), 7.
[30] Ayessou, C.N., Ndiaye, C., Cissé, Gueye, M. and Sakho, M. (2013) Nutritional potentiel of Dialium guineense Willd fruit. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis (JFCA) (in Press). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2014.01.002
[31] Ndour, B., Sali, P.N., Samba, A.N.S. and Sène, A. (1999) Bilanet evaluation des activités de SALWA 1990-1999 au Sénégal, ICRAF, Kenya, 19.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.