Environmental Stress Effect on Animal Reproduction


The aim of this review is to present some aspects of environmental stress effect on reproduction of farm animals. It describes the following: neuroendocrinology of stress, types of stress, stress characteristics in the reproductive process and recommendations for control environmental stress. Stress is the result of confinement and an ambitious vision and uncaring by the man, who is in the interest of improving production, has participated unconsciously, by manipulating animal production in its way, even trying to tame new species, impossible to adapt to our environment healthy. At present, it has been concluded that stress is one of the environmental factors that affect handling and decrease the production of livestock, it is considered that the main factor which should be controlled in units animal production, since it is closely related to pathogens and infectious agents that may try to the health of animals. Finally, some recommendations are outlined to lessen stress for heat, by handling and by feeding.

Share and Cite:

Alejandro, C. , Abel, V. , Jaime, O. and Pedro, S. (2014) Environmental Stress Effect on Animal Reproduction. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 4, 79-84. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2014.42011.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Coubrough, R.I. (1985) Stress and Fertility. A Review. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 52, 153-156.
[2] Dobson, H. and Smith, R.F. (1995) Stress and Reproduction in Farm Animals. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. Supplement, 49, 451-461.
[3] Ullah, G., Fuquay, J.W., Keawkhong, T., Clark, B.L., Pogue, D.E. and Murphey, E.J. (1996) Effect of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone at Estrus on Subsequent Luteal Function and Fertility in Lactating Holsteins during Heat Stress. Journal of Dairy Science, 79, 1950-1953.
[4] Gilad, E., Meidan, R., Berman, A., Graber, Y. and Wolfenson, D. (1993) Effect of Heat Stress on Tonic and GnRH-Induced Gonadotrophin Secretion in Relation to Concentration of Oestradiol in Plasma of Cyclic Cows. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 99, 315-321.
[5] Roth, Z., Arav, A., Bor, A., Zeron, Y., Braw-Tal, R. and Wolfenson, D. (2001) Improvement of Quality of Oocytes Collected in the Autumn by Enhanced Removal of Impaired Follicles from Previously Heat-Stressed Cows. Reproduction, 122, 737-744.
[6] Lee, C.N. (1993) Environmental Stress Effects on Bovine Reproduction. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 9, 263-273.
[7] Roth, Z., Meidan, R., Braw-Tal, R. and Wolfenson, D. (2000) Immediate and Delayed Effects of Heat Stress on Follicular Development and Its Association with Plasma FSH and Inhibin Concentration in Cows. Journal of Reproduction and Infertility, 120, 83-90.
[8] Ealy, A.D., Arechiga, E.F., Bray, D.R., Risco, C.A. and Hansen, P.J. (1994) Effectiveness of Short-Term Cooling and Vitamin E for Alleviation of Infertility Induced by Heat Stress in Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 77, 3601-3607.
[9] Wolfenson, D., Lew, B.J., Thatcher, W.W., Graber, Y. and Meidan, R. (1997) Seasonal and Acute Heat Stress Effects on Steroid Production by Dominant Follicles in Cows. Animal Reproduction Science, 47, 9-19.
[10] Ambrose, J.D., Drost, M., Monson, R.L., Uutledge, J.J., Leibfried-Rutredge, M.L., Thatcher, M.-J., Kassa, T., Binelli, M., Hansen, P.J., Chenoweth, P.J. and Thatcher, W.W. (1999) Efficacy of Timed Embryo Transfer with Fresh and Frozen in Vitro Produced Embryos to Increase Pregnancy Rates in Heat-Stresed Dairy Cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 82, 2369-2376.
[11] Dobson, H., Tebble, J.E., Smith, R.F. and Ward, W.R. (2001) Is Stress Really All That Important? Theriogenology, 55, 65-73.
[12] Zapiola, M. (1998) La reducción del estrés del manejo mejora la productividad y el bienestar animal.
[13] Dobson, H. and Smith, R.F. (2000) What Is Stress, and How Does It Affect Reproduction? Animal Reproduction Science, 2, 743-752.
[14] Rutledge, J.J. (2001) Use of Embryo Transfer and IVF to Bypass Effects of Heat Stress. Theriogenology, 55, 105-111.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.