Genetic Diversity of the Palestinian Fig (Ficus carica L.) Collection by Pomological Traits and RAPD Markers


Analysis of differentiation (genetic diversity and related relationships) among 22 landrace (Ficus carica L. sativa) and 2 wild form (F. carica L. caprificus) accessions of fig growing under the same environmental conditions in the Palestinian Fig Collection, Til, Nablus, Palestine, using PCR-based Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and pomological markers, revealed considerable genetic diversity. The phenotypic analysis shows that pomological traits were permitted to evaluate morphological variability of fig landraces. The Jaccard similarity coefficient between landraces was determined by cluster analysis using the UPGMA method. Based on the genetic relationships among genotypes as illustrated by the dendrograms, generated from pomological and RAPD data by UPGMA clustering method, the following 12 genotypes: Qaisi, Mwazi, Barqawi, Inaqi, Swadi, Kharobi, Hmadibiadi, Sfari, Khdari, Biadi, Qrawi, and Slati, may be considered as distinct landraces. The remaining genotypes may be considered as synonymous (4) (Hmadi and Hmari, and Ajloni and Adloni), or closely related (6) landraces (Zraqi and Ghzali, Blati and Neami, and Qraee and Khurtmani). The wild fig forms clustered together and may be considered as distinct genotypes. Clustering patterns obtained from the combined (pomological and RAPD) markers had higher discriminatory power to discriminate fig landraces than using either pomological or RAPD markers alone. These results proved the importance of both pomological and RAPD markers to elucidate in part denomination problems and relationships among cultivars. Wide phenotypic and molecular diversity found in fig germplasm indicates a considerable potential for improving this crop.

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Ali-Shtayeh, M. , Jamous, R. , Abu Zaitoun, S. , Mallah, O. and Mubaslat, A. (2014) Genetic Diversity of the Palestinian Fig (Ficus carica L.) Collection by Pomological Traits and RAPD Markers. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 1139-1155. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.59127.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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