MMCC Based Electronically Tunable Allpass Filters Using Grounded Synthetic Inductor


New circuit implementations of electronically tunable first and second order allpass filter (AP) structures using a Multiplication Mode Current Conveyor (MMCC) building block are presented. The control voltage (V) of the MMCC tunes the desired phase (θ) while the time constant (τ) is adjustable by a Differential Voltage Current Conveyor Transconductance Amplifier (DVCCTA)-based synthetic lossless grounded inductor (L). The circuits are analyzed taking into account the device imperfections which show low active sensitivity features of the designs. The effects of port transfer error (ε) and that of the parasitic capacitances of the active devices had been meticulously examined which indicated that certain deviations in nominal design equations occur; these however, could be minimized with appropriate choice of the circuit passive components. Readily available AD-844 type Current Feedback Amplifier (CFA) elements are utilized for the topology implementation. Satisfactory test results on electronic θ-tunability, upto about 300 KHz, had been verified by PSPICE simulation and with hardware experimentation.

Share and Cite:

Nandi, R. , Venkateswaran, P. and Kar, M. (2014) MMCC Based Electronically Tunable Allpass Filters Using Grounded Synthetic Inductor. Circuits and Systems, 5, 89-97. doi: 10.4236/cs.2014.54011.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ponsonby, J.E. (1966) Active Allpass Filter Using a Differential Operational Amplifier. Electronics Letters, 2, 134-135.
[2] Genin, R. (1968) Realisation of an Allpass Transfer Function Using Operational Amplifier. Proceedings of the IEEE, 56, 1746-1747.
[3] Nandi, R. (1977) New Allpass Phase Shifters. International Journal of Electronics, 42, 97-99.
[4] Soliman, A.M. (1973) Inductorless Realization of Allpass Transfer Function Using the Current Conveyor. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, 20, 80-81.
[5] Nandi, R. (1992) Novel Current Mode Allpass Phase Shifters Using a Current Conveyor. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 41, 553-555.
[6] Higashimura, M. and Fukui, Y. (1990) Realization of Current Mode Allpass Networks Using a Current Conveyor. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, 37, 6660-6661.
[7] Pandey, N., Pandey, R. and Paul, S.K. (2012) A First Order Allpass Filter and its Application in a Quadrature Oscillator. Journal of the Electron Devices Society, 12, 772-777.
[8] Mohan, J., Maheshwari, S. and Chauhan, D.S. (2010) Voltage Mode Cascadable Allpass Sections using Single Active Element and Grounded Passive Components. Journal of Circuits and Systems—Scientific Research Publishing, 1, 5-11.
[9] Toker, A. and Ozoguz, S. (2004) Novel Allpass Filter Using Differential Difference Amplifier. AEU—International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 58, 153-155.
[10] Biolek, D. and Biolkova, V. (2009) Allpass Filter Employing One Grounded Capacitor and One active Element. Electronics Letters, 45, 807-808.
[11] Psychaslinos, C. and Pal, K. (2010) A Novel Allpass Current Mode Filter Realized Using a Minimum Number of Single-Output OTAs. Journal of Frequenz, 64,123-129.
[12] Biolek, D. and Biolkova, V. (2010) First Order Voltage Mode Allpass Filter Employing One Active Element and One Grounded Capacitor. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 65, 123-129.
[13] Ibrahim, A., Minaei, S. and Yuce, E. (2012) Allpass Sections with Rich Cascadability and IC Realization Suitability. International Journal of Circuit Theory Applications, 40, 461-472.
[14] Wangenheim, L.V. (2012) Phase Margin Determination in a Closed Loop Configuration. Journal of Circuit System and Signal Processing, 31, 1917-1926.
[15] Herencsar, N., Minaei, S., Koton, S., Yuce, E. and Vrba, K. (2013) New Resistorless and Electronically Tunable realization of Dual-Output VM Allpass Filter Using VDIBA. Journal of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 74, 141-154.
[16] Nandi, R., Kar, M. and Das, S. (2009) Electronically Tunable Dual-Input Integrator Employing a Single CDBA and a Multiplier. Journal of Active and Passive Electronic Components, 2009, 1-5.
[17] Li, Y.A. (2014) Electronically Tunable Current Mode Biquadratic Filter and Four-Phase Quadrature Oscillator. Microelectronics Journal, 45, 330-335.
[18] Hwang, Y.S., Liu, W.H., Tu, S.H. and Chen, J.J. (2009) New Building Block: Multiplication Mode Current Conveyor. Circuits, Devices and Systems—The IET, 3, 41-48
[19] Intersil Datasheet (1998) File #2477.5 and (Apr.1999) File #2863.4.
[20] Analog Devices (1990) Linear Products Databook. Norwood.
[21] Tammam, A.A., Hayatleh, K., Ben-Esmael, M. and Terzopoulus, N. (2013) Critical Review of the Circuit Architecture of CFOA. International Journal of Electronics, 101, 441-451.
[22] Palumbo, G. and Pennisi, S. (2001) Current Fedback Amplifiers versus Voltage Operational Amplifiers. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, 48, 617-623.
[23] News Updates (2004) Internet Version: Global Signal Processing Times.
[24] Nandi, R., Kar, M. and Das, S. (2011) Synthetic Inductor Based Resonators Using DVCCTA. Proceedings of International Conference EUROCON, Portugal, 584-586.
[25] Macromodel of AD-844 AN in PSPICE Library (1992) Microsim Corpn. Irvine.
[26] Venkateswaran, P., Nandi, R. and Das, S. (2012) New Integrators and Differentiators Using a MMCC. Circuits and Systems, 3, 288-294.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.